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Entry into mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is negatively regulated by the wee1+ gene, which encodes a protein kinase with serine-, theonine-, and tyrosine-phosphorylating activities. The wee1+ kinase negatively regulates mitosis by phosphorylating p34cdc2 on tyrosine 15, thereby inactivating the p34cdc2-cyclin B complex. The human homolog of the wee1+(More)
The cel (cellobiose utilization) operon of Escherichia coli K12 is not expressed in the wild-type organism. However, mutants that can express the operon and thereby utilize the beta-glucoside sugars cellobiose, arbutin and salicin are easily isolated. Two kinds of mutations are capable of activating the operon. The first involves mutations that allow the(More)
Wild-type Escherichia coli are not able to utilize beta-glucoside sugars because the genes for utilization of these sugars are cryptic. Spontaneous mutations in the cel operon allow its expression and enable the organism to ferment cellobiose, arbutin and salicin. In this report we describe the structure and nucleotide sequence of the cel operon. The cel(More)
The G2-M phase transition in eukaryotes is regulated by the synergistic and opposing activities of a cascade of distinct protein kinases and phosphatases. This cascade converges on Cdc2, a serine/threonine protein kinase required for entry into mitosis (reviewed in ref. 1). In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, inactivation of the Cdc2/cyclin B(More)
Mitotic cell division is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which phosphorylate hundreds of protein substrates responsible for executing the division program. Cdk inactivation and reversal of Cdk-catalyzed phosphorylation are universal requirements for completing and exiting mitosis and resetting the cell cycle machinery. Mechanisms that define(More)
Escherichia coli K12 is being used to study the potential for adaptive evolution that is present in the genome of a single organism. Wild-type E. coli K12 do not utilize any of the beta-glucoside sugars arbutin, salicin or cellobiose. It has been shown that mutations at three cryptic loci allow utilization of these sugars. Mutations in the bgl operon allow(More)
The majority of eukaryotic proteins are phosphorylated in vivo, and phosphorylation may be the most common regulatory posttranslational modification. Many proteins are phosphorylated at numerous sites, often by multiple kinases, which may have different functional consequences. Understanding biological functions of phosphorylation events requires methods to(More)
Both cyclins A and B associate with and thereby activate cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks). We have investigated which component in the cyclin-cdk complex determines its substrate specificity. The A- and B-type cyclin-cdk complexes phosphorylated histone H1 and their cyclin subunits in an indistinguishable manner, irrespective of the catalytic(More)
p107wee1 is a protein kinase that functions as a dose-dependent inhibitor of mitosis through its interactions with p34cdc2 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To characterize the kinase activity of p107wee1, its carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain was purified to homogeneity from overproducing insect cells. The apparent molecular mass of the purified protein(More)
The regulation of p34cdc2 was investigated by overproducing p34cdc2, cyclin (A and B) and the wee1+ gene product (p107wee1) using a baculoviral expression system. p34cdc2 formed a functional complex with both cyclins as judged by co-precipitation, phosphorylation of cyclin in vitro, and activation of p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activity. Co-production of(More)