Laurie L. McDonald

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OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between parent expectations for antibiotics, parent communication behaviors, and physicians' perceptions of parent expectations for antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN A nested cross-sectional study with parallel measures of parents presenting children for acute respiratory infections (previsit) and physicians (postvisit) and(More)
CONTEXT Widespread overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics are a major public health concern. Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in parents seeking antibiotics for their children's upper respiratory illnesses. OBJECTIVE To examine racial/ethnic differences in parent expectations about the need for antibiotics and physician perceptions of(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the relationships among physician-parent communication practices, physicians' perceptions of parental expectations for antibiotic treatment, and inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for viral upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of pediatric encounters motivated by cold symptoms between October 1, 2000,(More)
BACKGROUND There is a high degree of professional consensus that children diagnosed with pharyngitis should only receive antibiotics if they have a positive test for group A streptococcus (GAS). OBJECTIVES To develop and test the validity of a quality of care performance measure that examines GAS testing rates in children diagnosed with pharyngitis and(More)
Seventy-five participants aged from their teens to their seventies were measured on a battery of measures of personality, lifestyle, intelligence, and educational background. These measures were gauged against performance on a measure of animism, in which participants judged twenty-three items (4 alive, 19 non-living) as living or non-living. Although(More)
Three age groups (teenage; 50-65 and 65+) completed a written version of Piaget's moral reasoning tasks to determine the general level of moral reasoning and performance on eight separate categories. Significant age effects were found. Though the nature of the age group difference was mixed, younger subjects consistently achieved lower levels of(More)
Multiple factors should influence decisions about the mix of Army active and reserve component forces, including the capabilities that these forces provide and their respective costs. This report focuses on two critical aspects of capability and cost: (1) the time needed to make forces ready to deploy in a crisis and (2) the costs of active and reserve(More)
This report presents findings on the economic activity supported by total Army spending in each of the 435 congressional districts for fiscal years 2012–2014. Using input/output models, researchers estimated that in fiscal 2014, the Army directly spent approximately $121 million in the median congressional district (in 2012 dollars), translating into about(More)
Emotional availability was rated in infants' relationships with significant caregivers over a nine-month period. Infant responsivity to and involvement of caregivers was found to be related to individual sensitivity, while each relationship appeared to be unique, and not based on the nature of the infants' relationships with their mothers.