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Protection afforded by HIV Tat-based vaccines has differed in Indian rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. We evaluated native Tat and Ad-HIVtat priming/Tat-boosting regimens in both species. Both vaccines were immunogenic. Only the Ad-tat regimen modestly reduced acute viremia in rhesus macaques after SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Confounding variables(More)
We have employed global transcriptional profiling of whole blood to identify biologically relevant changes in cellular gene expression in response to alternative AIDS vaccine strategies with subsequent viral challenge in a rhesus macaque vaccine model. Samples were taken at day 0 (prechallenge), day 14 (peak viremia), and week 12 (set point) from animals(More)
Although priming with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants, followed by HIV/SIV envelope boosting, has proven highly immunogenic, resulting in protection from SIV/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenges, Ad5hr recombinant distribution,(More)
Of 90 human rhinovirus (RV) serotypes tested, 50 can be placed into 16 groups according to antigenic relationships. It has been suggested that antigenic variants might arise in nature by immunologic pressure. To investigate this possibility, attempts were made to select variants by cloning 16 different plaque-purified RV serotypes in the presence of(More)
We have shown that following priming with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants, boosting with gp140 envelope protein enhances acute-phase protection against intravenous simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)(89.6P) challenge compared to results with(More)
Effector cells armed with Abs can eliminate virus-infected target cells by Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), an immune mechanism that has been largely overlooked in HIV vaccine development. Here, we show that a prime/boost AIDS vaccine approach elicits potent ADCC activity correlating with protection against SIV in rhesus macaques (Macacca(More)
Whereas several recent AIDS vaccine strategies have protected rhesus macaques against a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)(89.6P) challenge, similar approaches have provided only modest, transient reductions in viral burden after challenge with virulent, pathogenic SIV, which is more representative of HIV infection of people. We show here(More)
We demonstrate that the FATAL cytolysis assay can be adapted into a rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assay (RFADCC). The RFADCC relies on double-staining target cells with a membrane dye (PKH-26) and a viability dye (CFSE) prior to the addition of antibody and effector cells. We used the RFADCC to assess dose-dependent and(More)
Immunity elicited by multicomponent vaccines delivered by replication-competent Ad5hr-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants was systematically investigated. Rhesus macaques were immunized mucosally at weeks 0 and 12 with Ad5hr-SIV(smH4) env/rev, with or without Ad5hr-SIV(mac239) gag or Ad5hr-SIV(mac239) nef, or with all three recombinants. The(More)
Vaccine-induced protection of chimpanzees against laboratory-adapted and syncytium-inducing, multiply passaged primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, but not against non-syncytium-inducing, minimally passaged ones, has been demonstrated. Following challenge with such an isolate, HIV-15016, we obtained complete protection in one of(More)