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Chromium(VI) is a known human carcinogen which requires intracellular reduction for activation. Ascorbate (vitamin C) has been reported to function as a major reductant of Cr(VI) in animals and cell culture systems. The reaction of Cr(VI) with varying concentrations of ascorbate was studied under physiological conditions in vitro in order to determine the(More)
Reactive oxygen species, produced endogenously or by exposure to environmental chemicals and ionizing radiation, induce a wide range of DNA lesions. The variety of chemistries associated with different oxidants suggests that each will produce a unique spectrum of DNA damage products. To extend our efforts to relate genotoxin chemistry to DNA damage, we(More)
From 1973 to 1983 we followed 73 asymptomatic healthy subjects who were discovered to have frequent and complex ventricular ectopy. Ventricular ectopy in these subjects was measured by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, which showed a mean frequency of 566 ventricular ectopic beats per hour (range, 78 to 1994), with multiform ventricular ectopic beats(More)
In sheep and cattle, the ileal Peyer's patch (PP), which extends one-two meters along the terminal small intestine, is a primary lymphoid organ of B-cell development. B-cell diversity in the ileal PP is thought to develop by combinatorial mechanisms, gene conversion and/or point mutation. These species also have jejunal PP that function more like secondary(More)
In SJL mice, growth of RcsX lymphoma cells results in activation of macrophages in the spleen and lymph nodes to produce high levels of NO radical (NO.). We used this experimental model system to study the toxicology of NO. in vivo. To characterize spatial relationships between sites of NO. production and tissue damage, immunohistochemical techniques were(More)
The current model of Ig repertoire development in sheep focuses on the rearrangement of a small number (approximately 20) of Vlambda gene segments. It is believed that this limited combinatorial repertoire is then further diversified through postrearrangement somatic hypermutation. This process has been reported to introduce as many as 110 mutations/1000(More)
The model of immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire diversification in sheep has evolved dramatically in recent years. A process thought to involve the rearrangement of a very limited number of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) segments followed by intense, antigen (Ag)-independent, somatic hypermutation is now known to be less recombinatorially(More)
In the process of generating the cells that populate the sheep's B-cell pool, the ileal Peyer's patch (PP) produces an immense number of B-cells and then destroys most of them by apoptosis. Rapid clearance of these apoptotic cells is essential for tissue homeostasis and for preventing pathology. Macrophages comprise a small percentage of cells in the(More)