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Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to renew themselves and to give rise to all lineages of the blood; however, the signals that regulate HSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here we show that the Wnt signalling pathway has an important role in this process. Overexpression of activated beta-catenin expands the pool of HSCs in long-term cultures by(More)
The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature(More)
Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling has been suggested to play a role in the development of multiple solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. GDC-0449 is a novel first-inhuman , first-in-class smoothened (SMO) inhibitor, which has completed its phase I evaluation and achieved proof of concept in tumors with Hh pathway mutations. In this issue of(More)
BACKGROUND We previously identified by flow cytometry a Lineage-CD44+ (Lin-CD44+) subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We now correlate clinical and histologic factors with Lin-CD44+ cell frequency. METHODS The study included 31 patients with HNSCC, of whom 87% had stage IV disease. The(More)
Major clinical issues in bladder cancer include the identification of prediction markers and novel therapeutic targets for invasive bladder cancer. In the current study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a tumor-initiating cell (T-IC) subpopulation in primary human bladder cancer, based on the expression of markers similar to that of normal(More)
Gene therapy of many genetic diseases requires permanent gene transfer into self-renewing stem cells and restriction of transgene expression to specific progenies. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived lentiviral vectors are very effective in transducing rare, nondividing stem cell populations (e.g., hematopoietic stem cells) without altering their(More)
Stem cells and their potential applications have become the forefront of scientific, political, and ethical discourse. Whereas stem cells were long accepted as units of development and evolution, it is now becoming increasingly clear that they are also units of oncogenesis. Although the field of stem cell biology is expanding at an astounding rate, the data(More)
Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are best characterized by their surface expression of CD44. Although there is great interest in identifying strategies to target this population, no marker of these cells has been found to be functionally active. Here, we examined the expression of the purported marker of(More)
OBJECT The goal of this study was to illustrate the findings of a significant subpopulation of cells within a pediatric astroblastoma that have the specific cell surface phenotype found on known human neural stem cells. METHODS Cells with a cell surface marker profile characteristic of human neural stem cells were isolated using fluorescence-activated(More)
Apoptosis is a fundamental host defence mechanism against invading microbes. Inactivation of NF-kappaB attenuates encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) virulence by triggering rapid apoptosis of infected cells, thereby pre-emptively limiting viral replication. Recent evidence has shown that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) increases NF-kappaB-mediated(More)