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We have used whole-mount immunofluorescence microscopy of late-stage Xenopus laevis oocytes and early embryos to examine the organization of their cortical cytokeratin systems. In both mature oocytes and early embryos, there is a distinct animal-vegetal polarity in cytokeratin organization. In mature (stage-VI) oocytes, the cytokeratin filaments of the(More)
Brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that blocks transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to inhibit poliovirus replication 10(5)- to 10(6)-fold. BFA does not inhibit entry of poliovirus into the cell or translation of viral RNA. Poliovirus RNA synthesis, however, is completely inhibited by BFA. A specific class of(More)
During meiotic maturation, the cortical cytokeratin filament system of the Xenopus oocyte disappears (Klymkowsky, M. W., and L. A. Maynell. 1989. Dev. Biol. 134:479). Here we demonstrate that this disappearance results from the severing of cytokeratin filaments into a heterogenous population of oligomers, with S- values ranging from 12S and greater.(More)
We examined the importance of two interactions between poliovirus and its host cell: the putative association between viral proteins and a rearranged intermediate filament (IF) network and the apparent requirement for functional vesicle budding machinery within the host-cell secretory pathway. Poliovirus capsid proteins appeared to associate with(More)
In Xenopus, one of the most dramatic events during oocyte maturation is the breakdown of the oocyte's asymmetrically organized system of cytokeratin-type intermediate filaments. Following oocyte maturation in vitro, we found that (1) the breakdown of cytokeratin filament organization proceeds in an animal to vegetal direction, (2) cytokeratin filament(More)
To study the role of keratin filaments in Xenopus development, fertilized eggs were injected with anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies. The anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3 induce abnormal gastrulation; in the most severely affected embryos gastrulation fails completely. In contrast, embryos injected with the anti-keratin antibody 1h5 develop(More)
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