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RATIONALE To better understand anxiety disorders with social impairments as well as to identify new treatments, it is important to develop preclinical procedures involving social components of anxiety. Recently, a novel procedure was reported: the rat Social Approach-Avoidance (SAA) test. In this test, the time spent by a test rat in a large social(More)
Intraperitoneal injection of adult male mice with the neuroactive steroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) at 1 and 40 mg/kg caused dose-dependent increases in the concentration of both this compound and its corresponding free steroid DHEA in brain within 1 h of injection. Pretreatment of these animals for 24 h with the steroid sulfatase inhibitor(More)
Over the last decades, the inhibition of spontaneous burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anxiolytic drug action in the so-called marble burying test. Indeed, acute administration of rapid-onset (e.g. diazepam) and slow-onset (e.g. fluoxetine) anxiolytics inhibit marble burying. However, non-anxiolytic compounds such as classical(More)
RATIONALE In rats, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) stimulation elicits escape behavior that is thought to be related to fear and panic. A noninvasive technique--exposure to ultrasound-has been reported to stimulate the dPAG and induce escape followed by freezing in Lister-hooded (LH) rats. OBJECTIVE Further characterize pharmacologically the(More)
RATIONALE Increasing evidence suggests that defensive escape behavior in Lister-hooded (LH) rats induced by ultrasound application may be an animal model of panic disorder. OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were to further explore the face and construct validity of ultrasound-induced escape behavior by characterizing the autonomic and neuroendocrine(More)
In the current study we examined the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the locomotor activity of gerbils, and undertook experiments to understand the mechanisms involved in their effects. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine (1-30 mg/kg, i.p.) and escitalopram (0.03-10 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently increased locomotor(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become an important method in clinical psychiatry research whereas there are still only few comparable preclinical investigations. Herein, we report that fMRI in rats can provide key information regarding brain areas underlying anxiety behavior. Perfusion as surrogate for neuronal activity was measured by(More)
A finite element method is presented to compute time harmonic microwave fields in three dimensional configurations. Nodal-based finite elements have been coupled with an absorbing boundary condition to solve open boundary problems. This paper describes how the modeling of large devices has been made possible using parallel computation. New algorithms are(More)