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Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors that are implicated in several biological processes such as embryonic development, homeostasis, and metabolic diseases. To study the role of NRs in development, it is critically important to know when and where individual genes are expressed. Although systematic expression studies using reverse transcriptase(More)
Amphibian metamorphosis is marked by dramatic, thyroid hormone (TH)-induced changes involving gene regulation by TH receptor (TR). It has been postulated that TR-mediated gene regulation involves chromatin remodeling. In the absence of ligand, TR can repress gene expression by recruiting a histone deacetylase complex, whereas liganded TR recruits a histone(More)
Thyroid hormone (T(3)) induces gene regulation programs necessary for tadpole metamorphosis. Among the earliest responses to T(3) are the up-regulation of T(3) receptor beta (TRbeta; autoinduction) and BTEB1 (basic transcription element-binding protein 1). BTEB1 is a member of the Krüppel family of transcription factors that bind to GC-rich regions in gene(More)
Transcriptional activation from chromatin by nuclear receptors (NRs) requires multiple cofactors including CBP/p300, SWI/SNF and Mediator. How NRs recruit these multiple cofactors is not clear. Here we show that activation by androgen receptor and thyroid hormone receptor is associated with the promoter targeting of SRC family members, p300, SWI/SNF and the(More)
Cooperative, synergistic gene regulation by nuclear hormone receptors can increase sensitivity and amplify cellular responses to hormones. We investigated thyroid hormone (TH) and glucocorticoid (GC) synergy on the Krüppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) gene, which codes for a zinc finger transcription factor involved in development and homeostasis of diverse(More)
Metamorphosis in amphibians is marked by dramatic thyroid hormone-induced changes that include tail regression. To examine thyroid hormone effects on gene transcription during the early stages of tail resorption, we injected exogenous genes directly into the caudal skeletal muscle of Xenopus tadpoles and followed their expression in vivo. Gene expression(More)
BACKGROUND Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) plays critical roles in vertebrate development. However, the in vivo mechanism of TR action remains poorly explored. SCOPE OF REVIEW Frog metamorphosis is controlled by TH and mimics the postembryonic period in mammals when high levels of TH are also required. We review here some of the findings on the(More)
Amphibian metamorphosis is marked by dramatic thyroid hormone (T(3))-induced changes including de novo morphogenesis, tissue remodeling, and organ resorption through programmed cell death. These changes involve cascades of gene regulation initiated by thyroid hormone (TH). TH functions by regulating gene expression through TH receptors (TR). TR are(More)
Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) act as activators of transcription in the presence of the thyroid hormone (T(3)) and as repressors in its absence. While many in vitro approaches have been used to study the molecular mechanisms of TR action, their physiological relevance has not been addressed. Here we investigate how TR regulates gene expression during(More)