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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral(More)
Upon cell infection by a retrovirus, the viral DNA polymerase, called reverse transcriptase (RT), copies the genomic RNA to generate the proviral DNA flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTR). A discovery twenty years ago demonstrated that the structural viral nucleocapsid protein (NC) encoded by Gag is an essential cofactor of reverse transcription,(More)
In addition to genomic RNA, HIV-1 particles package cellular and spliced viral RNAs. In order to determine the encapsidation mechanisms of these RNAs, we determined the packaging efficiencies and specificities of genomic RNA, singly and fully spliced HIV mRNAs and different host RNAs species: 7SL RNA, U6 snRNA and GAPDH mRNA using RT-QPCR. Except GAPDH(More)
Small non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nt in length can regulate gene expression through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. To characterize small RNAs in HIV-1-infected cells, we performed linker-ligated cloning followed by high-throughput pyrosequencing. Here, we report the composition of small RNAs in HIV-1 productively infected MT4 T-cells. We identified(More)
Retroviruses replicate by converting their positive sense genomic RNA into double-stranded DNA that is subsequently integrated into the host genome. This conversion is catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT) early after virus entry into the target cell and is chaperoned by the nucleocapsid protein (NC). In HIV-1, NC is composed of small basic domains(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 22-nt non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of cellular gene expression and potential cellular defense against viral infection. Using in silico analyses, we predicted target sites for 22 human miRNAs in the HIV genome. Transfection experiments using synthetic miRNAs showed that five of these miRNAs capably decreased HIV(More)
We have shown previously that HIV actively and selectively packages the spliced HIV RNAs into progeny virions. In the present study, by using a RT-QPCR and QPCR strategies, we show that spliced viral RNAs are present in infectious particles and consequently participate, along with the unspliced genomic RNA, to some of the early steps of infection such as(More)
HIV-1 particles contain RNA species other than the unspliced viral RNA genome. For instance, viral spliced RNAs and host 7SL and U6 RNAs are natural components that are non-randomly incorporated. To understand the mechanism of packaging selectivity, we analyzed the content of a large panel of HIV-1 variants mutated either in the 5'UTR structures of the(More)
Reverse transcription of the genomic RNA by reverse transcriptase occurs soon after HIV-1 infection of target cells. The viral nucleocapsid (NC) protein chaperones this process via its nucleic acid annealing activities and its interactions with the reverse transcriptase enzyme. To function, NC needs its two conserved zinc fingers and flanking basic(More)
BACKGROUND It remains unclear whether retroviruses can encode and express an intragenomic microRNA (miRNA). Some have suggested that processing by the Drosha and Dicer enzymes might preclude the viability of a replicating retroviral RNA genome that contains a cis-embedded miRNA. To date, while many studies have shown that lentiviral vectors containing(More)