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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by macrophages plays an important role in the host response to infection. TNF-alpha gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages is predominantly regulated at the translational level. A key element in this regulation is an AU-rich (AUR) sequence located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TNF mRNA. In(More)
TNF-alpha gene expression is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in mouse macrophages. The post-transcriptional regulation is mediated by the AU-rich element (ARE) located in the TNF-alpha mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR), which controls its translation and stability. In resting macrophages, the ARE represses TNF-alpha mRNA(More)
Upon cell infection by a retrovirus, the viral DNA polymerase, called reverse transcriptase (RT), copies the genomic RNA to generate the proviral DNA flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTR). A discovery twenty years ago demonstrated that the structural viral nucleocapsid protein (NC) encoded by Gag is an essential cofactor of reverse transcription,(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that control a multitude of critical processes in mammalian cells. Increasing evidence has emerged that host miRNAs serve in animal cells to restrict viral infections. In turn, many viruses encode RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) which are employed to moderate the potency of the cell's miRNA selection against(More)
Small non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nt in length can regulate gene expression through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. To characterize small RNAs in HIV-1-infected cells, we performed linker-ligated cloning followed by high-throughput pyrosequencing. Here, we report the composition of small RNAs in HIV-1 productively infected MT4 T-cells. We identified(More)
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been used to inhibit HIV-1 replication. The durable inhibition of HIV-1 replication by RNA interference has been impeded, however, by a high mutation rate when viral sequences are targeted and by cytotoxicity when cellular genes are knocked down. To identify cellular proteins that contribute to HIV-1 replication that can(More)
It remains unclear whether retroviruses can encode and express an intragenomic microRNA (miRNA). Some have suggested that processing by the Drosha and Dicer enzymes might preclude the viability of a replicating retroviral RNA genome that contains a cis-embedded miRNA. To date, while many studies have shown that lentiviral vectors containing miRNAs can(More)
In addition to genomic RNA, HIV-1 particles package cellular and spliced viral RNAs. In order to determine the encapsidation mechanisms of these RNAs, we determined the packaging efficiencies and specificities of genomic RNA, singly and fully spliced HIV mRNAs and different host RNAs species: 7SL RNA, U6 snRNA and GAPDH mRNA using RT-QPCR. Except GAPDH(More)
Retroviruses replicate by converting their positive sense genomic RNA into double-stranded DNA that is subsequently integrated into the host genome. This conversion is catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT) early after virus entry into the target cell and is chaperoned by the nucleocapsid protein (NC). In HIV-1, NC is composed of small basic domains(More)