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Accumulation of AMPA receptors at synapses is a fundamental feature of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Stargazin, a member of the TARP family, is an AMPAR auxiliary subunit allowing interaction of the receptor with scaffold proteins of the postsynaptic density, such as PSD-95. How PSD-95 and Stargazin regulate AMPAR number in synaptic membranes remains(More)
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are located in neuronal cell membranes at synaptic and extrasynaptic locations, where they are believed to mediate distinct physiological and pathological processes. Activation of NMDARs requires glutamate and a coagonist whose nature and impact on NMDAR physiology remain elusive. We report that synaptic and(More)
Synaptic activity regulates the postsynaptic accumulation of AMPA receptors over timescales ranging from minutes to days. Indeed, the regulated trafficking and mobility of GluR1 AMPA receptors underlies many forms of synaptic potentiation at glutamatergic synapses throughout the brain. However, the basis for synapse-specific accumulation of GluR1 is(More)
Corticosterone facilitates hippocampal glutamate transmission, but the cellular pathways by which AMPA receptor (AMPAR) signaling is adjusted remain elusive. Single quantum-dot imaging in live rat hippocampal neurons revealed that corticosterone triggers, via distinct corticosteroid receptors, time-dependent increases in GluR2-AMPAR surface mobility and(More)
The NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) varies during development, and this change is important in NMDAR-dependent signaling. In particular, synaptic NMDAR switch from containing mostly NR2B subunit to a mixture of NR2B and NR2A subunits. The pathways by which neurons differentially traffic NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs are poorly(More)
The basis for differences in activity-dependent trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) remains unclear. Using single-molecule tracking, we found different lateral mobilities for AMPARs and NMDARs: changes in neuronal activity modified AMPAR but not NMDAR mobility, whereas protein kinase C activation modified both. Differences in(More)
Autoimmune synaptic encephalitides are recently described human brain diseases leading to psychiatric and neurological syndromes through inappropriate brain-autoantibody interactions. The most frequent synaptic autoimmune encephalitis is associated with autoantibodies against extracellular domains of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, with(More)
Nascent glutamatergic synapses are thought to be equipped with only NMDA receptors and to mature in a stepwise fashion when AMPA receptors are acquired later, through specific patterns of activity. We review recent data suggesting that AMPA receptors are in fact present in the nascent synapse but in a labile state. The nascent synapse can easily switch(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has emerged as a physiological regulator of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory. The pathways by which MMP-9 affects NMDAR signaling remain, however, elusive. Using single quantum dot tracking, we demonstrate that MMP-9 enzymatic activity increases NR1-NMDAR surface trafficking but has no(More)
The acquisition and consolidation of memories of stressful events is modulated by glucocorticoids, a type of corticosteroid hormone that is released in high levels from the adrenal glands after exposure to a stressful event. These effects occur through activation of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). The molecular(More)