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The pedunculopontine area (PPNa) including the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, belongs to the mesencephalic locomotor region. Little is known about the oscillatory mechanisms underlying the function of this region in postural and gait control. We examined the modulations of the oscillatory activity of the PPNa and cortex during stepping, a surrogate(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus is part of the reticular ascending arousal system and is involved in locomotion and sleep. Two patients with Parkinson disease received electrodes that stimulated the pedunculopontine nucleus area to alleviate their severe gait impairment. Instead, we found that low-frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area(More)
In animals, the pedunculopontine (PPN) and the sub-cuneiform (SCU) nuclei located in the upper brainstem are involved during the processing of gait. Similar functional nuclei are suspected in humans but their role in gait is unclear. Here we show that, using extra-cellular recordings of the PPN/SCU region obtained in two parkinsonian patients, the SCU(More)
For decades, several animal models of locomotion have allowed a better understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of gait. However, unlike most of the mammals, the Order Primates is characterized by fundamental changes in locomotor behaviour. In particular, some primates use a specific pattern of locomotion and are able to naturally walk bipedally(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region has received considerable attention in clinical studies as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. These studies have yielded variable results with an overall impression of improvement in falls and freezing in many but not all patients treated. We evaluated the available data on the surgical(More)
UNLABELLED The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) is formed by the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, two neuronal structures thought to be key elements in the supraspinal control of locomotion, muscle tone, waking, and REM sleep. The role of MRF has also been advocated in modulation of state of arousal leading to transition from wakefulness to(More)
Despite its widespread use, the underlying mechanism of deep brain stimulation (DBS) remains unknown. Once thought to impart a "functional inactivation", there is now increasing evidence showing that DBS actually can both inhibit neurons and activate axons, generating a wide range of effects. This implies that the mechanisms that underlie DBS work not only(More)
BACKGROUND The aim was to measure female sexual function after total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis using a validated scoring system and to determine the impact of pouch function on sexual function. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was performed using a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index(More)
OBJECTIVE Although electrophysiologic dysfunction of the subthalamic nucleus is putative, deep brain stimulation of this structure has recently been reported to improve obsessions and compulsions. In Parkinson disease, sensorimotor subthalamic neurons display high-frequency burst firing, which is considered as an electrophysiologic signature of motor loop(More)
Several lines of evidence over the last few years have been important in ascertaining that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region could be considered as a potential target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat freezing and other problems as part of a spectrum of gait disorders in Parkinson disease and other akinetic movement disorders. Since the(More)