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Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. This goal was achieved by the insertion of a loxP-flanked BAC cassette into the(More)
Molecular motors transport the axis-determining mRNAs oskar, bicoid and gurken along microtubules (MTs) in the Drosophila oocyte. However, it remains unclear how the underlying MT network is organized and how this transport takes place. We have identified a centriole-containing centrosome close to the oocyte nucleus. Remarkably, the centrosomal components,(More)
Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp by using bioluminescence imaging. Taking advantage of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a(More)
Herpesviruses use multiple virion glycoproteins to enter cells. How these work together is not well understood: some may act separately or they may form a single complex. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) gB, gH, gL, and gp150 all participate in entry. gB and gL are involved in binding, gB and gH are conserved fusion proteins, and gp150 inhibits cell(More)
Herpesviruses characteristically transmit infection from immune hosts. Although their success in escaping neutralization by pre-formed antibody is indisputable, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Glycoprotein B (gB) is the most conserved component of the herpesvirus entry machinery and its N terminus (gB-NT) is a common(More)
Many herpesviruses bind to heparan sulfate (HS). Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) does so via its envelope glycoproteins gp70 and gH/gL. MuHV-4 gp150 further regulates an HS-independent interaction to make that HS-dependent too. Cell binding by MuHV-4 virions is consequently strongly HS-dependent. Gp70 and gH/gL show some in vitro redundancy: an(More)
The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol.(More)
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) commonly participate in herpesvirus entry. They are thought to provide a reversible attachment to cells that promotes subsequent receptor binding. Murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is highly GAG-dependent. This is a function of the viral gp150, in that gp150-deficient mutants are(More)
Persistent viruses disseminate from immune hosts. They must therefore resist neutralization by antibody. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) represents an accessible model with which to address how resistance to neutralization is achieved and how overcoming it might improve infection control. The MHV-68 glycoprotein B (gB), like that of other herpesviruses,(More)
Studies of cellular biology in recent decades have highlighted the crucial roles of glycans in numerous important biological processes, raising the concept of glycomics that is now considered as important as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. For millions of years, viruses have been co-evolving with their hosts. Consequently, during this co-evolution(More)