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AIMS AND METHODS Long term effects of air pollution on mortality were studied in 14,284 adults who resided in 24 areas from seven French cities when enrolled in the PAARC survey (air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases) in 1974. Daily measurements of sulphur dioxide, total suspended particles, black smoke, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide were made(More)
INTRODUCTION France was affected in early August 2003 by a heat wave with an exceptional health impact. Many studies on mortality were conducted but few data are available on morbidity. The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of the 2003 heat wave in the general population of elderly people and to determine individual factors associated(More)
In January 2005, an epidemic of chikungunya fever broke out in the Comoro Islands and lasted until May 2005. In April, cases were also reported in Mayotte and Mauritius. On Réunion Island, the first cases were reported at the end of April. Surveillance of this epidemic required an adaptive system, which at first was based on active and retrospective case(More)
Current knowledge about potential interactions between socioeconomic status and the short- and long-term effects of air pollution on mortality was reviewed. A systematic search of the Medline database through April 2006 extracted detailed information about exposure measures, socioeconomic indicators, subjects' characteristics and principal results. Fifteen(More)
BACKGROUND Ecologic studies are commonly used to report associations between short-term air pollution and mortality. In such studies, the unit of observation is the day rather than the individual. Moreover, individual data on the subjects are rarely available, which limits the assessment of individual risk factors. These associations can also be(More)
The Phytoner study investigated a possible association between neuropsychologic performances and long-term exposure to pesticides in Bordeaux vineyard workers, most of whom use fungicides. Among the 917 subjects interviewed from February 1997 to August 1998, 528 were directly exposed to pesticides through mixing and/or spraying (mean exposure duration: 22(More)
The frailty model is a random effect survival model, which allows for unobserved heterogeneity or for statistical dependence between observed survival data. The nested frailty model accounts for the hierarchical clustering of the data by including two nested random effects. Nested frailty models are particularly appropriate when data are clustered at(More)
With few exceptions, studies of short-term health effects of air pollution use pollutant concentrations that are averaged citywide as exposure indicators. They are thus prone to exposure misclassification and consequently to bias. Measurement of the relations between air pollution and health, generally and in specific populations, could be improved by(More)
Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420(More)