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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Intestinal barrier impairment is incriminated in the pathophysiology of intestinal gut disorders associated with psychiatric comorbidity. Increased intestinal permeability associated with upload of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) translocation induces depressive symptoms. Gut microbiota and probiotics alter behavior and brain neurochemistry.(More)
BACKGROUND Stressful events in the early period of life (for example, maternal deprivation) have been shown to modify adult immune and gastrointestinal tract functions. The present study aimed to establish whether maternal deprivation affects colonic epithelial barrier and the development of an experimental colitis in adult rats. METHODS Male Wistar rat(More)
The linguistic and cognitive development of 26 premature and 27 full-term infants was studied longitudinally over the first 3 years of life. Infants in the premature population included 12 who were below 1500 g in birthweight and an even larger number with "at risk" signs. Language samples were collected in the home approximately every other month, the(More)
BACKGROUND/AIM Proinflammatory cytokines are key factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), which is involved in their gene transcription, is increased in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients. As butyrate enemas may be beneficial in treating colonic inflammation, we investigated if butyrate promotes(More)
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are recognized as the major anions of the large intestinal content in humans, but their effect on colonic motility is controversial. This study explores the colonic motor effect of SCFAs and their mechanisms in the rat. Colonic motility (electromyography) and transit time (plastic markers) were measured in conscious rats(More)
Vasopressin and its receptors modulate several gut functions, but their role in intestinal inflammation is unknown. Our aims were to determine 1) the localization of V1b receptors in human and rodent colon, 2) the role of vasopressin and V1b receptors in experimental colitis using two approaches: V1b⁻(/)⁻ mice and a selective V1b receptor antagonist,(More)
OBJECTIVE Intestinal proteases carry out a variety of functions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Studies have reported that elevated enteric proteases in patients with GI disease can alter intestinal physiology, however the origin (human vs. microbial) of elevated proteases in patients with GI disease is unclear. AIM The aim of this study was to(More)
Luminal activation of protease-activated receptors-2 (PAR(2)) on colonocytes by trypsin or PAR(2)-activating peptide increases colonic paracellular permeability (CPP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of proteases from endogenous and bacterial origin in the modulation of CPP and colonocyte PAR(2) expression in mice. CPP was assessed with(More)
Neonatal stress is known to alter immune responses in adults and parasitic infection is modulated by the immune status of the host. The present study aimed to establish whether neonatal maternal deprivation affects the time course of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection and associated intestinal alterations in adult rats. Rat pups were separated from(More)
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