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The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
Unraveling the evolutionary forces responsible for variations of neutral substitution patterns among taxa or along genomes is a major issue for detecting selection within sequences. Mammalian genomes show large-scale regional variations of GC-content (the isochores), but the substitution processes at the origin of this structure are poorly understood. We(More)
We have sequenced to high levels of accuracy 714-kb and 233-kb regions of the mouse and bovine X-inactivation centers (Xic), respectively, centered on the Xist gene. This has provided the basis for a fully annotated comparative analysis of the mouse Xic with the 2.3-Mb orthologous region in human and has allowed a three-way species comparison of the core(More)
Unraveling the evolutionary forces responsible for variations of neutral substitution patterns among taxa or along genomes is a major issue in the identification of functional sequence features. Mammalian genomes show large-scale regional variations of GC-content (the isochores), but the substitution processes at the origin of this structure are poorly(More)
To determine whether gene expression patterns affect mutation rates and/or selection intensity in mammalian genes, we studied the relationships between substitution rates and tissue distribution of gene expression. For this purpose, we analyzed 2,400 human/rodent and 834 mouse/rat orthologous genes, and we measured (using expressed sequence tag data) their(More)
The multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) isolated from plasma of MS patients was found to be phylogenetically and experimentally related to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). To characterize the MSRV-related HERV family and to test the hypothesis of a replication-competent HERV, we have investigated the expression of MSRV-related sequences in(More)
To understand the origin and evolution of isochores-the peculiar spatial distribution of GC content within mammalian genomes-we analyzed the synonymous substitution pattern in coding sequences from closely related species in different mammalian orders. In primate and cetartiodactyls, GC-rich genes are undergoing a large excess of GC --> AT substitutions(More)
In an attempt to understand the origin of CpG islands (CGIs) in mammalian genomes, we have studied their location and structure according to the expression pattern of genes and to the G + C content of isochores in which they are embedded. We show that CGIs located over the transcription start site (named start CGIs) are very different structurally from the(More)
The understanding of selective constraints affecting genes is a major issue in biology. It is well established that gene expression level is a major determinant of the rate of protein evolution, but the reasons for this relationship remain highly debated. Here we demonstrate that gene expression is also a major determinant of the evolution of gene dosage:(More)
The Xist noncoding RNA is the key initiator of the process of X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals, but its precise function and origin remain unknown. Although Xist is well conserved among eutherians, until now, no homolog has been identified in other mammals. We show here that Xist evolved, at least partly, from a protein-coding gene and that(More)