Laurent Duret

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We measured the expression pattern and analyzed codon usage in 8,133, 1,550, and 2,917 genes, respectively, from Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana. In those three species, we observed a clear correlation between codon usage and gene expression levels and showed that this correlation is not due to a mutational bias.(More)
Recombination is typically thought of as a symmetrical process resulting in large-scale reciprocal genetic exchanges between homologous chromosomes. Recombination events, however, are also accompanied by short-scale, unidirectional exchanges known as gene conversion in the neighborhood of the initiating double-strand break. A large body of evidence suggests(More)
The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
The Xist noncoding RNA is the key initiator of the process of X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals, but its precise function and origin remain unknown. Although Xist is well conserved among eutherians, until now, no homolog has been identified in other mammals. We show here that Xist evolved, at least partly, from a protein-coding gene and that(More)
To determine whether gene expression patterns affect mutation rates and/or selection intensity in mammalian genes, we studied the relationships between substitution rates and tissue distribution of gene expression. For this purpose, we analyzed 2,400 human/rodent and 834 mouse/rat orthologous genes, and we measured (using expressed sequence tag data) their(More)
To get insights into the regulation of replication initiation, we systematically mapped replication origins along 1% of the human genome in HeLa cells. We identified 283 origins, 10 times more than previously known. Origin density is strongly correlated with genomic landscapes, with clusters of closely spaced origins in GC-rich regions and no origins in(More)
Understanding the factors responsible for variations in mutation patterns and selection efficacy along chromosomes is a prerequisite for deciphering genome sequences. Population genetics models predict a positive correlation between the efficacy of selection at a given locus and the local rate of recombination because of Hill-Robertson effects. Codon usage(More)
The vast amount of data generated by genome projects and the recent development of population genetics models make comparative sequence analyses a very powerful approach with which to detect the footprints of selection. Studies on synonymous codon usage show that traits with minuscule phenotypic effects can be molded by natural selection. But variations in(More)
BASE composition is spatially structured in mammaisochores may simply reflect variable mutation processes among genomic regions, consistent with the neutral lian genomes. From sodium chloride centrifugation experiments, Bernardi et al. (1985) defined three model. Such variation in mutational biases has never been demonstrated. Alternatively, isochores might(More)
The multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) isolated from plasma of MS patients was found to be phylogenetically and experimentally related to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). To characterize the MSRV-related HERV family and to test the hypothesis of a replication-competent HERV, we have investigated the expression of MSRV-related sequences in(More)