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We measured the expression pattern and analyzed codon usage in 8,133, 1,550, and 2,917 genes, respectively, from Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana. In those three species, we observed a clear correlation between codon usage and gene expression levels and showed that this correlation is not due to a mutational bias.(More)
Recombination is typically thought of as a symmetrical process resulting in large-scale reciprocal genetic exchanges between homologous chromosomes. Recombination events, however, are also accompanied by short-scale, unidirectional exchanges known as gene conversion in the neighborhood of the initiating double-strand break. A large body of evidence suggests(More)
The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
The Xist noncoding RNA is the key initiator of the process of X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals, but its precise function and origin remain unknown. Although Xist is well conserved among eutherians, until now, no homolog has been identified in other mammals. We show here that Xist evolved, at least partly, from a protein-coding gene and that(More)
To determine whether gene expression patterns affect mutation rates and/or selection intensity in mammalian genes, we studied the relationships between substitution rates and tissue distribution of gene expression. For this purpose, we analyzed 2,400 human/rodent and 834 mouse/rat orthologous genes, and we measured (using expressed sequence tag data) their(More)
Understanding the factors responsible for variations in mutation patterns and selection efficacy along chromosomes is a prerequisite for deciphering genome sequences. Population genetics models predict a positive correlation between the efficacy of selection at a given locus and the local rate of recombination because of Hill-Robertson effects. Codon usage(More)
To get insights into the regulation of replication initiation, we systematically mapped replication origins along 1% of the human genome in HeLa cells. We identified 283 origins, 10 times more than previously known. Origin density is strongly correlated with genomic landscapes, with clusters of closely spaced origins in GC-rich regions and no origins in(More)
Unraveling the evolutionary forces responsible for variations of neutral substitution patterns among taxa or along genomes is a major issue for detecting selection within sequences. Mammalian genomes show large-scale regional variations of GC-content (the isochores), but the substitution processes at the origin of this structure are poorly understood. We(More)
The multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) isolated from plasma of MS patients was found to be phylogenetically and experimentally related to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). To characterize the MSRV-related HERV family and to test the hypothesis of a replication-competent HERV, we have investigated the expression of MSRV-related sequences in(More)
We compared the exon/intron organization of vertebrate genes belonging to different isochore classes, as predicted by their GC content at third codon position. Two main features have emerged from the analysis of sequences published in GenBank: (1) genes coding for long proteins (i.e., ≥500 aa) are almost two times more frequent in GC-poor than in GC-rich(More)