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Recruitment of movement-related muscle synergies involves the functional linking of motor cortical points. We asked how the outputs of two simultaneously stimulated motor cortical points would interact. To this end, experiments were done in ketamine-anesthetized cats. When prolonged (e.g., 500 ms) trains of intracortical microstimulation were applied in the(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative size and location of proximal and distal upper limb muscle representations in the human motor cortex. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the proximal muscle anterior deltoid (AD) and in the distal muscles extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and first(More)
In the present work, dynamic clamp was used to inject a current that mimicked tonic synaptic activity in the soma of cat lumbar motoneurones with a microelectrode. The reversal potential of this current could be set at the resting potential so as to prevent membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization. The only effect of the dynamic clamp was then to elicit(More)
When untrained subjects walk backward on a treadmill, an unexpectedly large amplitude soleus H-reflex occurs in the midswing phase of backward walking. We hypothesized that activity in the corticospinal tract (CST) during midswing depolarizes the soleus alpha-motoneurons subliminally and thus brings them closer to threshold. To test this hypothesis,(More)
Due to technical difficulties in performing amniocentesis before the 12th week of pregnancy, very little is known about the components of human amniotic fluid before that time. Amniocentesis was performed between the 7th-11th week of gestation in 25 informed and consenting patients, who had to undergo therapeutic interruption of pregnancy. The cells from(More)
We recently suggested that movement-related inter-joint muscle synergies are recruited by selected excitation and selected release from inhibition of cortical points. Here we asked whether a similar cortical mechanism operates in the functional linking of antagonistic muscles. To this end experiments were done on ketamine-anesthetized cats. Intracortical(More)
The details and functional significance of the intrinsic horizontal connections between neurons in the motor cortex (MCx) remain to be clarified. To further elucidate the nature of this intracortical connectivity pattern, experiments were done on the MCx of three cats. The anterograde tracer biocytin was ejected iontophoretically in layers II, III, and V.(More)
Our purpose was to compare two different methods of expressing nuchal translucency (NT) measurements in first-trimester screening for trisomy 21: the difference in millimeters from the median of nuchal translucency (delta value: delta NT) and the multiple of the expected median (MoM). Fetal nuchal translucency was measured in 32 fetuses with trisomy 21 and(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of first-trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 18, by using pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in combination with maternal age. Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were assayed retrospectively in stored sera from 323(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical evidence and epidemiological research show an increasing number of subjects trying to become lean and reaching consequently harmful weight conditions. Aim of this paper is to assess the risk for eating disorders during adolescence. METHODS In a multicentric study high school students of 5 different districts of Northern Italy have been(More)