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Recruitment of movement-related muscle synergies involves the functional linking of motor cortical points. We asked how the outputs of two simultaneously stimulated motor cortical points would interact. To this end, experiments were done in ketamine-anesthetized cats. When prolonged (e.g., 500 ms) trains of intracortical microstimulation were applied in the(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative size and location of proximal and distal upper limb muscle representations in the human motor cortex. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the proximal muscle anterior deltoid (AD) and in the distal muscles extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and first(More)
When untrained subjects walk backward on a treadmill, an unexpectedly large amplitude soleus H-reflex occurs in the midswing phase of backward walking. We hypothesized that activity in the corticospinal tract (CST) during midswing depolarizes the soleus alpha-motoneurons subliminally and thus brings them closer to threshold. To test this hypothesis,(More)
In the present work, dynamic clamp was used to inject a current that mimicked tonic synaptic activity in the soma of cat lumbar motoneurones with a microelectrode. The reversal potential of this current could be set at the resting potential so as to prevent membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization. The only effect of the dynamic clamp was then to elicit(More)
We recently suggested that movement-related inter-joint muscle synergies are recruited by selected excitation and selected release from inhibition of cortical points. Here we asked whether a similar cortical mechanism operates in the functional linking of antagonistic muscles. To this end experiments were done on ketamine-anesthetized cats. Intracortical(More)
The details and functional significance of the intrinsic horizontal connections between neurons in the motor cortex (MCx) remain to be clarified. To further elucidate the nature of this intracortical connectivity pattern, experiments were done on the MCx of three cats. The anterograde tracer biocytin was ejected iontophoretically in layers II, III, and V.(More)
Pretibial flexor motoneurons were recorded intracellularly in anesthetized cats during unfused isometric contractions of a subpopulation of motor units from either tibialis anterior (TA) or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. The contractions elicited excitatory postsynaptic potentials in 23 of 28 pretibial flexor motoneurons. No effect was observed in(More)
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