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Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) is an important tool for in vivo tissue imaging with sub-cellular resolution, but the penetration depth of current systems is potentially limited by sample-induced optical aberrations. To quantify these, we measured the refractive index n' in the somatosensory cortex of 7 rats in vivo using defocus optimization(More)
The use of ordered neuronal networks in vitro is a promising approach to study the development and the activity of small neuronal assemblies. However, in previous attempts, sufficient growth control and physiological maturation of neurons could not be achieved. Here we describe an original protocol in which polylysine patterns confine the adhesion of(More)
Most genetic regulatory mechanisms involve protein-DNA interactions. In these processes, the classical Watson-Crick DNA structure sometimes is distorted severely, which in turn enables the precise recognition of the specific sites by the protein. Despite its key importance, very little is known about such deformation processes. To address this general(More)
Myelin sheath disruption is responsible for multiple neuropathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. Myelin imaging has thus become an important diagnosis tool. However, in vivo imaging has been limited to either low-resolution techniques unable to resolve individual fibers or to low-penetration imaging of single fibers, which cannot provide(More)
We have analyzed the dependence of actin filament sliding movement on the mode of myosin attachment to surfaces. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to three distinct sites were used to tether myosin to nitrocellulose-coated glass. One antibody reacts with an epitope on the regulatory light chain (LC2) located at the head-rod junction. The other two(More)
In the barrel cortex, several features of single-whisker stimuli are organized in functional maps. The barrel cortex also encodes spatio-temporal correlation patterns of multi-whisker inputs, but so far the cortical mapping of neurons tuned to such input statistics is unknown. Here we report that layer 2/3 of the rat barrel cortex contains an additional(More)
Langmuir-Blodgett films of barium arachidate have been studied on both macroscopic and microscopic scales by atomic force microscopy. As prepared, the films exhibit a disordered hexagonal structure; molecularly resolved images in direct space establish a connection between the extent of the positional order and the presence of defects such as dislocations.(More)
Two-photon scanning microscopy (TPSM) is a powerful tool for imaging deep inside living tissues with sub-cellular resolution. The temporal resolution of TPSM is however strongly limited by the galvanometric mirrors used to steer the laser beam. Fast physiological events can therefore only be followed by scanning repeatedly a single line within the field of(More)
Acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) are promising ultrafast scanners for non-linear microscopy. Their use has been limited until now by their small scanning range and by the spatial and temporal dispersions of the laser beam going through the deflectors. We show that the use of AOD of large aperture (13mm) compared to standard deflectors allows accessing much(More)
In the neocortex, neuronal selectivities for multiple sensorimotor modalities are often distributed in topographical maps thought to emerge during a restricted period in early postnatal development. Rodent barrel cortex contains a somatotopic map for vibrissa identity, but the existence of maps representing other tactile features has not been clearly(More)