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Metazoan cells harness the power of actin dynamics to create cytoskeletal arrays that stimulate protrusions and drive intracellular organelle movements. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is understood to participate in cell elongation; however, a detailed description and molecular mechanism(s) underpinning filament nucleation, growth, and turnover are(More)
Xenopus actin-interacting protein 1 (XAip1) is thought to promote fragmentation of actin filaments by cofilin. To examine the mechanism of XAip1, we measured polymer lengths by fluorescence microscopy and the concentration of filament ends with an elongation assay. Cofilin creates ends by severing actin filaments. XAip1 alone does not sever actin filaments(More)
Remodeling of actin filament arrays in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli is thought to require precise control over the generation and availability of filament ends. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is an abundant filament capper, and its activity is inhibited by membrane signaling phospholipids in vitro. How exactly CP modulates the properties of(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular movements are powered by the assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Actin dynamics are controlled by Arp2/3 complex, the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and the related Scar protein, capping protein, profilin, and the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF, also known as cofilin). Recently, using an assay that both reveals the(More)
The actin filament network immediately under the plasma membrane at the leading edge of rapidly moving cells consists of short, branched filaments, while those deeper in the cortex are much longer and are rarely branched. Nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex activated by membrane-bound factors (Rho-family GTPases and PIP(2)) is postulated to account for the(More)
  • Alphée Michelot, Christophe Guérin, Shanjin Huang, Mathieu Ingouff, Stéphane Richard, Natalia Rodiuc +2 others
  • 2005
The organization of actin filaments into large ordered structures is a tightly controlled feature of many cellular processes. However, the mechanisms by which actin filament polymerization is initiated from the available pool of profilin-bound actin monomers remain unknown in plants. Because the spontaneous polymerization of actin monomers bound to profilin(More)
Growing evidence suggests that the nucleotide bound to actin filaments serves as a timer to control actin filament turnover during cell motility (Pollard, T. D., Blanchoin, L., and Mullins, R. D. (2000) Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 29, 545-576). We re-examined the hydrolysis of ATP by polymerized actin using mechanical quenched-flow methods to(More)
Actin dynamics (i.e., polymerization/depolymerization) powers a large number of cellular processes. However, a great deal remains to be learned to explain the rapid actin filament turnover observed in vivo. Here, we developed a minimal kinetic model that describes key details of actin filament dynamics in the presence of actin depolymerizing factor(More)
A number of cellular processes use both microtubules and actin filaments, but the molecular machinery linking these two cytoskeletal elements remains to be elucidated in detail. Formins are actin-binding proteins that have multiple effects on actin dynamics, and one formin, mDia2, has been shown to bind and stabilize microtubules through its formin homology(More)
The cytoskeleton is a key regulator of plant morphogenesis, sexual reproduction, and cellular responses to extracellular stimuli. During the self-incompatibility response of Papaver rhoeas L. (field poppy) pollen, the actin filament network is rapidly depolymerized by a flood of cytosolic free Ca2+ that results in cessation of tip growth and prevention of(More)