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The 70 C-terminal amino acids of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp WA) activate the actin nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex. WASp WA binds both the Arp2/3 complex and actin monomers, but the mechanism by which it activates the Arp2/3 complex is not known. We characterized the effect of WASp WA on actin polymerization in the absence and presence(More)
We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1(More)
Most nucleated cells crawl about by extending a pseudopod that is driven by the polymerization of actin filaments in the cytoplasm behind the leading edge of the plasma membrane. These actin filaments are linked into a network by Y-branches, with the pointed end of each filament attached to the side of another filament and the rapidly growing barbed end(More)
Metazoan cells harness the power of actin dynamics to create cytoskeletal arrays that stimulate protrusions and drive intracellular organelle movements. In plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is understood to participate in cell elongation; however, a detailed description and molecular mechanism(s) underpinning filament nucleation, growth, and turnover are(More)
Xenopus actin-interacting protein 1 (XAip1) is thought to promote fragmentation of actin filaments by cofilin. To examine the mechanism of XAip1, we measured polymer lengths by fluorescence microscopy and the concentration of filament ends with an elongation assay. Cofilin creates ends by severing actin filaments. XAip1 alone does not sever actin filaments(More)
We investigated the effect of actin filament length and capping protein on the rate of end-to-end annealing of actin filaments. Long filaments were fragmented by shearing and allowed to recover. Stabilizing filaments with phalloidin in most experiments eliminated any contribution of subunit dissociation and association to the redistribution of lengths but(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular movements are powered by the assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Actin dynamics are controlled by Arp2/3 complex, the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and the related Scar protein, capping protein, profilin, and the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF, also known as cofilin). Recently, using an assay that both reveals the(More)
The actin filament network immediately under the plasma membrane at the leading edge of rapidly moving cells consists of short, branched filaments, while those deeper in the cortex are much longer and are rarely branched. Nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex activated by membrane-bound factors (Rho-family GTPases and PIP(2)) is postulated to account for the(More)
Growing evidence suggests that the nucleotide bound to actin filaments serves as a timer to control actin filament turnover during cell motility (Pollard, T. D., Blanchoin, L., and Mullins, R. D. (2000) Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 29, 545-576). We re-examined the hydrolysis of ATP by polymerized actin using mechanical quenched-flow methods to(More)
The organization of actin filaments into large ordered structures is a tightly controlled feature of many cellular processes. However, the mechanisms by which actin filament polymerization is initiated from the available pool of profilin-bound actin monomers remain unknown in plants. Because the spontaneous polymerization of actin monomers bound to profilin(More)