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Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a… Continue Reading
Most patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-I) display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We hypothesized that this CMC might result from autoimmunity to interleukin… Continue Reading
Whole-exome sequencing reveals activating STAT1 mutations in some patients with autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease.
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of sporadic viral encephalitis in western countries. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, as it affects otherwise healthy… Continue Reading
Tuberculosis Vaccine Conundrum Some children experience severe clinical disease when they are vaccinated against tuberculosis, an attenuated live vaccine that is normally innocuous in humans. Several… Continue Reading
Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental mycobacteria (EM), and most children are inoculated with live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. In addition, most of the world's population is… Continue Reading
Chronic yeast infections in the absence of other infections result from genetic deficiencies in proinflammatory host responses. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) is characterized by… Continue Reading
MyD88 is a key downstream adapter for most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 deficiency in mice leads to susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens in… Continue Reading
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) have TIR intracellular domains that engage two main signaling pathways, via the TIR-containing adaptors MyD88 (which is not used by… Continue Reading
Natural killer (NK) cells are circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes that exert potent and nonredundant antiviral activity and antitumoral activity in the mouse; however, their function in host defense in… Continue Reading