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The opening and closing of voltage-activated Na+, Ca2+ and K+ (Kv) channels underlies electrical and chemical signalling throughout biology, yet the structural basis of voltage sensing is unknown. Hanatoxin is a tarantula toxin that inhibits Kv channels by binding to voltage-sensor paddles, crucial helix-turn-helix motifs within the voltage-sensing domains(More)
The four voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels activate upon membrane depolarization and open the pore. The location and motion of the voltage-sensing S4 helix during the early activation steps and the final opening transition are unresolved. We studied Zn(2+) bridges between two introduced His residues in Shaker Kv channels: one in the(More)
Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or(More)
We assess the novelty and maturity of software (SW) agent-based systems (ABS) for the Future Combat System (FCS) concept. The concept consists of troops, vehicles, communications, and weapon systems viewed as a " system of systems " [including net-centric command and control (C 2) capabilities]. In contrast to a centralized, or platform-based architecture,(More)
Interactions of sulfhydryl reagents with introduced cysteines in the pore-forming (Kir6.2) subunits of the K(ATP) channel were examined. 2-Aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA(+)) failed to modify Cd(2+)-insensitive control-Kir6.2 channels, but rapidly and irreversibly modified Kir6.2[L164C] (L164C) channels. Although a single Cd(2+) ion is coordinated by(More)
Moving commercial cargo across the US-Mexico border is currently a complex, paper-based, error-prone process that incurs expensive inspections and delays at several ports of entry in the Southwestern US. Improved information handling will dramatically reduce border dwell time, variation in delivery time, and inventories, and will give better control of the(More)
' In this paper we present and analyze an instance of a mutli-agent development system we call the standard agent system that enables the construction of distributed agent-based software systems for R&D, industrial, and government applications. The standard-agent system is implemented as an extensible object framework that provides a means for constructing(More)
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