Laurence Packer

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Many ecosystem services are delivered by organisms that depend on habitats that are segregated spatially or temporally from the location where services are provided. Management of mobile organisms contributing to ecosystem services requires consideration not only of the local scale where services are delivered, but also the distribution of resources at the(More)
The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps)(More)
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) have been declining rapidly in many temperate regions of the Old World. Despite their ecological and economic importance as pollinators, North American bumblebees have not been extensively surveyed and their conservation status is largely unknown. In this study, two approaches were used to determine whether bumblebees in that region(More)
We investigated higher-level phylogenetic relationships within the genus Halictus based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analysis of elongation factor-1alpha DNA sequence data. Our data set includes 41 OTUs representing 35 species of halictine bees from a diverse sample of outgroup genera and from the three widely recognized subgenera of Halictus(More)
In a recent opinion article in TREE, Ghazoul [1] questions the existence of a global pollinator crisis and, in doing so, raises some important points about the uncertainty of human dependence upon pollination services. We agree with Ghazoul [1] that much uncertainty remains regarding pollinator–pollination declines. However, we think that his assessment(More)
Pollination deficits in agricultural and natural systems are suggestive of large reductions in pollinator populations. However, actual declines are difficult to demonstrate using census data. Here, we show census data to be misleading because many abundant pollinators exhibit high levels of production of sterile diploid males usually found only in small(More)
Oligolectic bees collect pollen from one or a few closely related species of plants, whereas polylectic bees visit a variety of flowers for pollen. Because of their more restricted range of host plants, it maybe expected that specialists exist in smaller, more isolated populations, with lower effective population sizes than generalists. Consequently, we(More)
DNA barcoding has been evaluated for many animal taxa and is now advocated as a reliable and rapid means for species-level identification. The coming-to-light of this identification tool is timely as we are now facing perhaps the greatest rate of species loss in recent millennia. This study contributes to an ever-increasing number of published accounts of(More)
Caste determination in primitively eusocial sweat bees is thought to be due to an interacting suite of factors, including size of the larval provision mass, time of year, and social context of the nest into which a young female emerges. Newly emerged gynes are significantly fatter than newly emerged workers, suggesting the existence of larval caste(More)
Augochlorella striata was studied at the northern limit of its range. The study population contained a mixture of solitary and social nest foundresses. Eusocial foundresses produced 1 or 2 workers before switching to a male biased brood. Solitary foundresses produced males first. Cells vacated by eclosed offspring were reused late in summer. A female biased(More)