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We propose the CARE properties as a simple way of characterising and assessing aspects of multimodal interaction: the Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy, and Equivalence that may occur between the interaction techniques available in a multimodal user interface. We provide a formal definition of these properties and use the notion of compatibility to(More)
Although several real multimodal systems have been built, their development still remains a difficult task. In this paper we address this problem of development of multimodal interfaces by describing a component-based approach, called ICARE, for rapidly developing multimodal interfaces. ICARE stands for Interaction-CARE (Complementarity Assignment(More)
In this paper we present a notation, ASUR++, for describing mobile systems that combine physical and digital entities. The notation ASUR++ builds upon our previous one, called ASUR. The new features of ASUR++ are dedicated to handling the mobility of users and enable a designer to express physical relationships among entities involved in the system. The(More)
Integrating computer-based information into the real world of the user, is becoming a crucial challenge for the designers of interactive systems. The Augmented Reality (AR) paradigm illustrates this trend. Information is provided by the AR system to facilitate or to enrich the natural way the user interacts with the real environment. We focus on the outputs(More)
This article reports our reflection on software architecture modelling for multiuser systems (or groupware). First, we introduce the notion of software architecture and make explicit the design steps that most software designers in HCI tend to blend in a fuzzy way. Building on general concepts and practice from main stream software engineering, we then(More)
The area of multimodal interaction has expanded rapidly. However, the implementation of multimodal systems still remains a difficult task. Addressing this problem, we describe the OpenInterface (OI) framework, a component-based tool for rapidly developing multimodal input interfaces. The OI underlying conceptual component model includes both generic and(More)
This paper presents Flower menu, a new type of Marking menu that does not only support straight, but also curved gestures for any of the 8 usual orientations. Flower menus make it possible to put many commands at each menu level and thus to create as large a hierarchy as needed for common applications. Indeed our informal analysis of menu breadth in popular(More)
Multimodal interactive systems support multiple interaction techniques such as the synergistic use of speech, gesture and eye gaze tracking. The flexibility they offer results in an increased complexity that current software development tools do not address appropriately. In this paper we describe a component-based approach, called ICARE, for specifying and(More)
Fusion engines are fundamental components of multimodal inter-active systems, to interpret input streams whose meaning can vary according to the context, task, user and time. Other surveys have considered multimodal interactive systems; we focus more closely on the design, specification, construction and evaluation of fusion engines. We first introduce some(More)