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Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene polymorphisms are associated with many autoimmune diseases. The major risk allele encodes an R620W amino acid change that alters B cell receptor (BCR) signaling involved in the regulation of central B cell tolerance. To assess whether this PTPN22 risk allele affects the removal of developing(More)
Complement receptor 2-negative (CR2/CD21(-)) B cells have been found enriched in patients with autoimmune diseases and in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients who are prone to autoimmunity. However, the physiology of CD21(-/lo) B cells remains poorly characterized. We found that some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients also display an increased(More)
Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is an assorted group of primary diseases that clinically manifest with antibody deficiency, infection susceptibility, and autoimmunity. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI are associated with CVID and autoimmune manifestations, whereas two mutated(More)
The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) relies on chronic active B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. BCR pathway inhibitors induce remissions in a subset of ABC DLBCL patients. BCR microclusters on the surface of ABC cells resemble those generated following antigen engagement of normal B cells. We speculated that(More)
OBJECTIVE Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who have never received treatment for RA have been found to have defective early B cell tolerance checkpoints, resulting in impaired removal of developing autoreactive B cells. However, it is unclear whether these defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints are a primary aspect of the disease or are the result of(More)
BACKGROUND Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) can mediate the function of SLAM molecules, which have been proposed to be involved in the development of autoimmunity in mice. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the SLAM/SAP pathway regulates the establishment of human B-cell tolerance and what mechanisms of(More)
BACKGROUND Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is typified by recurrent infections, increased serum IgE levels, eosinophilia, and a high incidence of allergic and autoimmune manifestations. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the role of DOCK8 in the establishment and maintenance of human B-cell tolerance. METHODS Autoantibodies were measured in(More)
Patients with mutations in AICDA, which encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), display an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance. AID mediates class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells, but the mechanism by which AID prevents the accumulation of autoreactive B cells in blood is unclear. Here, we analyzed B cell(More)
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate B-cell tolerance in humans is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Patients with monogenic diseases provide rare opportunities to study the impact of specific gene mutations on the regulation of human B(More)