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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
Sequence information from an increasing number of complete mitochondrial genomes indicates that a large number of evolutionary distinct organisms import nucleus-encoded tRNAs. In the past five years, much research has been initiated on the features of imported tRNAs, the mechanism and the energetics of the process as well as on the components of the import(More)
In many eukaryotes, tRNA import from the cytosol into mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and, consequently, for cell viability. Recent work has begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in tRNA transport in yeast, trypanosomatids and plants. The mechanisms of tRNA targeting to, and translocation through, the double mitochondrial(More)
Despite their monophyletic origin, mitochondrial (mt) genomes of plants and animals have developed contrasted evolutionary paths over time. Animal mt genomes are generally small, compact, and exhibit high mutation rates, whereas plant mt genomes exhibit low mutation rates, little compactness, larger sizes, and highly rearranged structures. We present the(More)
Southern analysis with rpl5 and rps14 mtDNA gene probes of Solanum tuberosum, S. commersonii and a sample of somatic hybrids detected polymorphisms between parents and the appearance of a novel restriction fragment in various hybrids. In one of them, detailed mtDNA analyses revealed various configurations of the rpl5- rps14 region present at different(More)
In plants, protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids. Each compartment requires a full set of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of the targeting of organellar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Dual targeting appeared to be a general rule. Among the 24(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNAs are generally formed by direct attachment of an amino acid to tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, but Gln-tRNA is an exception to this rule. Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by this direct pathway in the eukaryotic cytosol and in protists or fungi mitochondria but is formed by an indirect transamidation pathway in most of bacteria, archaea, and(More)
Organellar nuclear-encoded proteins can be mitochondrial, chloroplastic or localized in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Most of the determinants for organellar targeting are localized in the N-terminal part of the proteins, which were therefore analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mitochondrial, chloroplastic and dual N-terminal sequences have an(More)
Editing is a general event in plant mitochondrial messenger RNAs, but has never been detected in a plant mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA). We demonstrate here the occurrence of a tRNA editing event in higher plant mitochondria: in both bean and potato, the C encoded at position 4 in the mitochondrial tRNA(Phe)(GAA) gene is converted into a U in the mature(More)