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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
Sequence information from an increasing number of complete mitochondrial genomes indicates that a large number of evolutionary distinct organisms import nucleus-encoded tRNAs. In the past five years, much research has been initiated on the features of imported tRNAs, the mechanism and the energetics of the process as well as on the components of the import(More)
Total transfer RNAs were extracted from highly purified potato mitochondria. From quantitative measurements, the in vivo tRNA concentration in mitochondria was estimated to be in the range of 60 microM. Total potato mitochondrial tRNAs were fractionated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty one individual tRNAs, which could read all(More)
We have analyzed 67 sequences surrounding transcription initiation sites identified in higher plant mitochondria. The sequences were classified, independently for monocots and dicots, according to the presence of the CRTA core element found upstream of the first transcribed nucleotide and previously reported as an essential element of plant mitochondrial(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNAs are generally formed by direct attachment of an amino acid to tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, but Gln-tRNA is an exception to this rule. Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by this direct pathway in the eukaryotic cytosol and in protists or fungi mitochondria but is formed by an indirect transamidation pathway in most of bacteria, archaea, and(More)
Two chalcone synthase genes in maize have been cloned and molecularly characterized to be the C2 and the Whp (white pollen) locus. The two genes have highly homologous exon sequences but differ considerably in sequences 5' upstream and 3' downstream of the coding region, as well as in their introns. Northern and Western experiments of chalcone synthase(More)
Editing is a general event in plant mitochondrial messenger RNAs, but has never been detected in a plant mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA). We demonstrate here the occurrence of a tRNA editing event in higher plant mitochondria: in both bean and potato, the C encoded at position 4 in the mitochondrial tRNA(Phe)(GAA) gene is converted into a U in the mature(More)
The nucleotide sequence of a potato mitochondrial tRNA(Ile) has been determined. This tRNA has a lysidine-like minor nucleotide in the first position of the anticodon (position 34). The corresponding mitochondrial gene has been cloned and sequenced. This gene has a CAT anticodon which corresponds to methionine. The C residue in the anticodon must therefore(More)
In many eukaryotes, tRNA import from the cytosol into mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and, consequently, for cell viability. Recent work has begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in tRNA transport in yeast, trypanosomatids and plants. The mechanisms of tRNA targeting to, and translocation through, the double mitochondrial(More)
Southern analysis with rpl5 and rps14 mtDNA gene probes of Solanum tuberosum, S. commersonii and a sample of somatic hybrids detected polymorphisms between parents and the appearance of a novel restriction fragment in various hybrids. In one of them, detailed mtDNA analyses revealed various configurations of the rpl5- rps14 region present at different(More)