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Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets exposed to(More)
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death are central in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Saturated fatty acids cause β-cell failure and contribute to diabetes development in genetically predisposed individuals. Here we used RNA sequencing to map transcripts expressed in five palmitate-treated human islet preparations, observing 1,325 modified(More)
Apoptosis is probably the main form of beta-cell death in both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM. In T1DM, cytokines contribute to beta-cell destruction through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Previous studies suggested that in T2DM high glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) are beta-cell toxic also via NF-kappaB activation. The aims of(More)
OBJECTIVE Chronic exposure of pancreatic beta-cells to saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis and may contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes. Here, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms involved in the protection of beta-cells from lipotoxic ER stress by glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonists(More)
Viral infections and local production of cytokines probably contribute to the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes. The viral replicative intermediate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, tested in the form of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, PIC), in combination with the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), triggers beta-cell apoptosis. We have previously observed by(More)
Free fatty acids cause pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and may contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Reductions in eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 2alpha phosphorylation trigger beta-cell failure and diabetes. Salubrinal selectively inhibits eIF2alpha dephosphorylation, protects(More)
We have explored the threshold of tolerance of three unrelated cell types to treatments with potential cytoprotective peptides bound to Tat(48-57) and Antp(43-58) cell-permeable peptide carriers. Both Tat(48-57) and Antp(43-58) are well known for their good efficacy at crossing membranes of different cell types, their overall low toxicity, and their absence(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Beta cell failure is a crucial component in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. One of the proposed mechanisms of beta cell failure is local inflammation, but the presence of pancreatic islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved remain under debate. METHODS Chemokine and cytokine expression was studied by microarray(More)
OBJECTIVE Cytokines contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. This effect is mediated by complex gene networks that remain to be characterized. We presently utilized array analysis to define the global expression pattern of genes, including spliced variants, modified by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma and(More)
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and the loss of functional β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes is at least in part secondary to increased β-cell apoptosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is present in β-cells in type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) cause ER stress and are(More)