Learn More
AQ4N (1,4-bis([2-(dimethylamino-N-oxide)ethyl]amino)5,8-dihydroxy- anthracene-9,10-dione) is a novel alkylaminoanthraquinone N-oxide which, on reduction, forms a stable DNA affinic cytotoxic compound AQ4. The in vivo anti-tumour efficacy of AQ4N was investigated in B6D2F1 mice bearing the T50/80 mammary carcinoma. The effect of the drug was evaluated in(More)
AQ4 (1,4-Bis-[[2-(dimethylamino-N-oxide)ethyl]amino]5,8-dihydroxyanthrace ne-9, 10-dione) is a prodrug designed to be excluded from cell nuclei until bioreduced in hypoxic cells to AQ4, a DNA intercalator and topoisomerase II poison. Thus, AQ4N is a highly selective bioreductive drug that is activated in, and is preferentially toxic to, hypoxic cells in(More)
The bioreductive drug, AQ4N, is metabolized under hypoxic conditions and has been shown to enhance the antitumor effects of radiation and chemotherapy drugs. We have investigated the role of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in increasing the metabolism of AQ4N using a gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy. RIF-1 murine tumor cells were(More)
Many anticancer drugs require interaction with DNA or chromatin components of tumor cells to achieve therapeutic activity. Quantification and exploration of drug targeting dynamics can be highly informative in the rational development of new therapies and in the drug discovery pipeline. The problems faced include the potential infrequency and transient(More)
Preclinical studies demonstrate that in vivo AQ4N enhances the anti-tumour effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents with a dose-modifying factor of approximately 2.0. With careful scheduling no, or very little, additional normal tissue toxicity should be observed. AQ4N is a bioreductive prodrug of a potent, stable, reduction product which binds(More)
A simple, highly selective and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the analysis of the new anti-cancer pro-drug AQ4N. The sample pre-treatment involves a simple protein precipitation protocol, using methanol. Chromatographic separations were performed using a HiChrom HIRPB (25 cmX4.6 mm I.D.)(More)
The integrins are a family of 24 heterodimeric transmembrane cell surface receptors. Involvement in cell attachment to the extracellular matrix, motility, and proliferation identifies integrins as therapeutic targets in cancer and associated conditions: thrombosis, angiogenesis, and osteoporosis. The most reported strategy for drug development is synthesis(More)
Resveratrol is a cancer preventative agent that is found in red wine. Piceatannol is a closely related stilbene that has antileukaemic activity and is also a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Piceatannol differs from resveratrol by having an additional aromatic hydroxy group. The enzyme CYP1B1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumours and catalyses(More)
Electron spin resonance (e.s.r.) studies showed the presence of doxorubicin (g = 2.0038) and mitozantrone (g = 2.0036) free radicals in human liver microsomes incubated with drug (50 microD) and supplemented with NADPH. In the same individual liver samples and at the concentration of drug used for e.s.r. studies doxorubicin also stimulated a many-fold(More)
BACKGROUND The multiparameter fluorometric analysis of intact and fixed cells often requires the use of a nuclear DNA discrimination signal with spectral separation from visible range fluorochromes. We have developed a novel deep red fluorescing bisalkylaminoanthraquinone, DRAQ5 (Ex(lambdamax) 646 nm; Em(lambdamax) 681 nm; Em(lambdarange) 665->800 nm), with(More)