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BACKGROUND The recent settlement of cattle in West Africa after several waves of migration from remote centres of domestication has imposed dramatic changes in their environmental conditions, in particular through exposure to new pathogens. West African cattle populations thus represent an appealing model to unravel the genome response to adaptation to(More)
BACKGROUND The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XX(th) century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N'Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to(More)
BACKGROUND Designing sustainable animal production systems that better balance productivity and resistance to disease is a major concern. In order to address questions related to immunity and resistance to disease in pig, it is necessary to increase knowledge on its immune system and to produce efficient tools dedicated to this species. RESULTS A(More)
Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is thought to be a critical mediator of malaria fever, and mild malaria was previously reported to be linked to the MHC region containing the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene (TNF). Thirty-four families from Burkina Faso were analyzed to test for linkage between polymorphisms within the MHC region and mild malaria(More)
BACKGROUND Transcriptomic approaches are relevant for studying virus-host cell dialogues to better understand the physiopathology of infection and the immune response at the cellular level. Pseudorabies virus (PrV), a porcine Alphaherpesvirus, is a good model for such studies in pig. Since PrV displays a strong tropism for mucous epithelial cells, we(More)
The development of cerebral malaria (CM) in mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection is under genetic control. Brain gene-expression patterns were investigated in well-defined genetically CM-resistant (CM-R; BALB/c and DBA/2) and CM-susceptible (CM-S; C57BL/6 and CBA/J) mice by use of cDNA microarrays. By combining transcriptional profiling with rigorous(More)
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs approximately 22 nt long that modulate gene expression in animals and plants. It has been recently demonstrated that herpesviruses encode miRNAs to control the post-transcriptional regulation of expression from their own genomes and possibly that of their host, thus adding an additional layer of complexity to the(More)
Genetic predisposition to malaria has been shown by epidemiological, case-control and linkage studies. In particular, case-control studies have recently shown association between hemoglobin C and resistance to severe malaria in Mali and to clinical malaria in Burkina Faso. In a longitudinal study of families living in an endemic area, we investigated(More)