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The B(II) bioassay was developed as a rapid and reliable tool for detecting potential insect growth regulators acting as ecdysteroid receptor (ant)agonists. Based on an ecdysteroid-responsive cell line from Drosophila melanogaster, this microplate assay is ideally suited to the evaluation of environmental contaminants as potential endocrine disrupters. Data(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate maternal responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate (polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus or PRP-T) given to pregnant Gambian women, the transplacental transfer of antibody, and the effect of maternal immunization on infant responses to the vaccine. DESIGN An open, randomized(More)
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated for toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro in two invertebrate bioassays. Subchronic effects of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tribromophenol (TBP), and four polybrominated diphenyl ethers ([PBDEs]; BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100) on larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa were(More)
In this review, we consider the general principles and specific methods for the purification of different classes of phytosteroids which have been isolated from plant sources: brassinosteroids, bufadienolides, cardenolides, cucurbitacins, ecdysteroids, steroidal saponins, steroidal alkaloids, vertebrate-type steroids and withanolides. For each class we give(More)
Phytoecdysteroids are a family of about 200 plant steroids related in structure to the invertebrate steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Typically, they are C27, C28 or C29 compounds possessing a 14alpha-hydroxy-7-en-6-one chromophore and A/B-cis ring fusion (5beta-H). In the present review, the distribution, biosynthesis, biological significance and(More)
Concern over endocrine disrupters in coastal ecosystems has stimulated global efforts to understand their potential impacts on fish and invertebrate communities. Given that marine crustaceans are sensitive to the effects of alkylphenols and other xenobiotics, we are currently investigating whether these responses may be caused via an endocrine mechanism.(More)
1. The mechanism of formation of the A/B cis ring junction of ecdysteroids in the locust Schistocerca gregaria, was investigated by incorporation of [4-14C,3 alpha-3H], [4-14C,4 alpha-3H] and [4-14C,4 beta-3H]cholesterol into 20-hydroxyecdysone in fifth-instar larvae and into ecdysteroid conjugates in ovaries of maturing adult females. 2. In both systems(More)
A full life-cycle (</=26 days exposure) toxicity test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes was used to study the effects of one nitro musk (musk ketone) as well as three polycyclic musks (Tonalide, Celestolide and Galaxolide). A subchronic individual life-table endpoint, the larval development rate, was recorded after 7-8 days exposure of(More)
Bioassay-guided high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of a MeOH extract of Iris clarkei seeds yielded the resveratrol-type oligomeric stilbenes, ampelopsin B and alpha-viniferin, which antagonize the action of 20-hydroxyecdysone; with a 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration of 50 nM, the ED50 values were 33 microM and 10 microM, respectively. The(More)