Learn More
Two nonallelic dwarfing mutations in mice define genes important for pituitary development and function. Mice homozygous for either the Ames (df) or Snell (Pit 1dw) dwarf mutations exhibit severe proportional dwarfism, hypothyroidism, and infertility due to the cytodifferentiation failure of three anterior pituitary cell types: thyrotropes, somatotropes,(More)
Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, are not only neurotoxic but function as small messenger molecules in normal neuronal processes such as synaptic plasticity. Consistent with this idea, we show that brief incubation of hippocampal slices with the superoxide-generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO)(More)
The induction of several forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the mammalian hippocampus is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation and the subsequent activation of protein kinase C (PKC), but the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of PKC in this context are largely unknown. It is known that(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) is an important intracellular signaling molecule whose activity is essential for a number of aspects of neuronal function including synaptic plasticity. We investigated the regulation of PKC activity by reactive nitrogen species in order to examine whether such species regulate PKC in neurons. Neither autonomous nor cofactor-dependent(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) typically are characterized as molecules involved in neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. However, recent evidence from both neuronal and nonneuronal cells suggests that ROS also function as small messenger molecules that are normal components of signal transduction cascades during physiological processes. Consistent with this(More)
We investigated the effects of mild oxidation on protein kinase C (PKC) using the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system of generating superoxide. Exposure of various PKC preparations to superoxide stimulated the autonomous activity of PKC. Similarly, thiol oxidation increased autonomous PKC activity, consistent with the notion that superoxide stimulates PKC via(More)
The DNA sequences important for cell-specific expression and developmental regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were analyzed in transgenic mice. A construct containing 0.5 kb of CRH 5' flanking DNA linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was expressed in many brain regions and in several ectopic peripheral sites,(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to act as cellular messengers that mediate signal transduction cascades in various cell types. However, little is known about their role in this capacity in the nervous system. We have begun to investigate the role of ROS, and that of nitric oxide (NO), in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)(More)
The site of action for the modulation of hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal function by adrenal steroids is not known. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are an obvious potential site of action, but there have been conflicting reports of GR localization in magnocellular neurons. We confirm studies finding undetectable levels of GR in vasopressin or oxytocin neurons,(More)
The neural substrates of learning and memory are thought to involve use-dependent long-term changes in synaptic function, including long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength. One biochemical event hypothesized to contribute to the maintenance and expression of LTD is decreased protein phosphorylation, caused by a decrease in protein kinase activity(More)