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To study the mechanism of nuclear import of T-DNA, complexes consisting of the virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 as well as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) were tested for import into plant nuclei in vitro. Import of these complexes was fast and efficient and could be inhibited by a competitor, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) coupled to BSA. For import of(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers transferred DNA (T-DNA), a single-stranded segment of its tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid, to the plant cell nucleus. The Ti-plasmid-encoded virulence E2 (VirE2) protein expressed in the bacterium has single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding properties and has been reported to act in the plant cell. This protein is thought to(More)
Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein(More)
Interaction between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and plants provides a unique example of interkingdom gene transfer. Agrobacterium, a plant pathogen, is capable to stably transform the plant cell with a segment of its own DNA called T-DNA (transferred DNA). This process depends, among others, on the specialized bacterial virulence proteins VirD1 and VirD2 that(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is able to transfer a piece of DNA, the T-DNA, to the nucleus of the plant cell. The VirD2 protein is required for the production of the T-DNA, it is tightly linked to the T-DNA and it is thought to direct it to the plant genome. Two nuclear localization signals (NLS), one in the N-terminal part and one in the C-terminal part of(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER)-β has been shown to possess a tumor suppressive effect, and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Using gene-expression meta-analysis of human malignant pleural mesothelioma, we identified an ESR2 (ERβ coding gene) signature. High ESR2 expression was strongly associated with low succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) (which encodes a(More)
1 Estrogen receptor (ER)-b has been shown to possess a tumor suppressive effect, and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Using gene-expression meta-analysis of human malignant pleural mesothelioma, we identified an ESR2 (ERb coding gene) signature. High ESR2 expression was strongly associated with low succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) (which encodes a(More)
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