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Prenatal exposure to testosterone is known to affect fetal brain maturation and later neurocognitive function. However, research on the effects of prenatal testosterone exposure has been limited by indirect measures of testosterone and small unrepresentative samples. This study investigated whether bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations in(More)
Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no "gold standard" approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and(More)
Background A large proportion of health promotion campaign evaluation research has historically been conducted via telephone surveys. However, there are concerns about the continued viability of this form of surveying in providing relevant and representative data. Online surveys are an increasingly popular alternative, and as such there is a need to assess(More)
Prenatal androgen exposure has been hypothesized to be linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While previous studies have found a link between testosterone levels in amniotic fluid and autistic-like traits, a similar relationship has not been found for testosterone in umbilical cord blood. However, it may be the net biological activity of multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Ratio of second digit length to fourth digit length (2D:4D) has been extensively used in human and experimental research as a marker of fetal sex steroid exposure. However, very few human studies have measured the direct relationship between fetal androgen or estrogen concentrations and digit ratio. AIMS We investigated the relationships(More)
Two competing theories address the influence of foetal testosterone on cerebral laterality: one proposing exposure to high foetal testosterone concentrations is related to atypical lateralisation (Geschwind-Galaburda hypothesis), the other that high foetal testosterone concentrations exaggerate typical lateralisation (callosal hypothesis). The current study(More)
Issue addressed: Online surveys are becoming increasingly popular in health research because of the low cost and fast completion time. A large proportion of online survey costs are allocated to setup and administration expenses, which suggests that conducting fewer, longer surveys would be a cost-effective approach. The current study assessed whether the(More)
OBJECTIVE Protecting the skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is critical during adolescence to reduce the risk of developing skin cancer later in life, but adolescents tend to be less likely to engage in sun-protective behaviours than adults. The present study examined changes and trends (2001/02-2011/12) in sun-protection behaviours among adolescents(More)
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