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Emerging studies indicate an association between virus-induced impairment in type I interferon (IFN-I) production and enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, which represent a major health problem. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of its natural murine host dramatically diminishes the(More)
Multiple inhibitory molecules create a profoundly immunuosuppressive environment during chronic viral infections in humans and mice. Therefore, eliciting effective immunity in this context represents a challenge. Here, we report that during a murine chronic viral infection, interleukin-6 (IL-6) was produced by irradiation-resistant cells in a biphasic(More)
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in the human diet; its deficiency leads to a number of symptoms and ultimately death. After entry into cells within the central nervous system (CNS) through sodium vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), vitamin C functions as a neuromodulator, enzymatic cofactor, and reactive(More)
Although previous studies showed that glucose is used to support the metabolic activity of the cartilaginous fish brain, the distribution and expression levels of glucose transporter (GLUT) isoforms remained undetermined. Optic/ultrastructural immunohistochemistry approaches were used to determine the expression of GLUT1 in the glial blood-brain barrier(More)
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