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When humans manipulate objects, the sensorimotor system coordinates three-dimensional forces to optimize and maintain grasp stability. To do this, the CNS requires precise information about the magnitude and direction of load force (tangential to skin surface) plus feedback about grip force (normal to skin). Previous studies have shown that there is rapid,(More)
Control of tangential force plays a key role in everyday manipulations. In anesthetized monkeys, forces tangential to the skin were applied at a range of magnitudes comparable to those used in routine manipulations and in eight different directions. The paradigm used enabled separation of responses to tangential force from responses to the background normal(More)
Cardiac vagal tone is an important indicator of cardiovascular health, and its loss is an independent risk factor for arrhythmias and mortality. Several studies suggest that this loss of vagal tone can occur at the cardiac ganglion but the factors affecting ganglionic transmission in vivo are poorly understood. We have employed a novel approach allowing(More)
1. The idea is introduced that cardiac rate, contractility or atrioventricular (A-V) conduction spread may be controlled independently by the brain. Limited data from reflex studies are cited to support this view. 2. Evidence is presented that individual autonomic post- and preganglionic neurons have quite specific actions on the heart. Premotor and other(More)
The sympathetic actions of medullary raphé neurons on heart rate (HR), atrioventricular conduction, ventricular contractility, and rate of relaxation were examined in nine urethane-anesthetized (1-1.5 g/kg iv), artificially ventilated rats that had been adrenalectomized and given atropine methylnitrate (1 mg/kg iv). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), ECG, and(More)
Torsional loads are ubiquitous during everyday dextrous manipulations. We examined how information about torque is provided to the sensorimotor control system by populations of tactile afferents. Torsional loads of different magnitudes were applied in clockwise and anticlockwise directions to a standard central site on the fingertip. Three different(More)
The von Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) is a vagally mediated chemoreflex from the heart and lungs, causing hypopnea, bradycardia, and inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor tone. However, cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) has not been systematically compared with vasomotor activity during the BJR. In 11 urethane-anesthetized (1-1.5 g/kg iv), artificially(More)
Arterial baroreflex function diminishes with age, but whether cardiopulmonary vagal reflexes are similarly altered with physiological aging has not been fully elucidated. In this study, predominantly cardiac high pressure mechanoreceptor-activated (ramp baroreflex) and cardiopulmonary chemoreceptor-activated (von Bezold-Jarisch reflex) vagal reflexes in(More)
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