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BACKGROUND The evidence from epidemiological research into whether use of hormonal contraception increases women's risk of HIV acquisition is inconsistent. We did a robust meta-analysis of existing data to provide summary estimates by hormonal contraceptive method which can be used to inform contraceptive guidelines, models, and future studies. METHODS We(More)
Food insecurity (FI) is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior in some studies. However, the overlap between FI and socioeconomic status (SES) has been poorly described. The study objectives were to: (1) determine the relationship between household FI and four dimensions of SES among sexually active Tanzanian women in farming households: expenditures,(More)
We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195(More)
Adolescence represents one of the key transitional periods in the life course. During adolescence, individuals are particularly sensitive to environmental or contextual inputs and undergo tremendous physical, social, emotional, and cognitive growth and development, developing habits, behavior patterns, and relationships that influence their lifelong health(More)
The decrease in adolescent birth rates in the United States has been slower among Latinas than among other ethnic/racial groups. Limited research has explored how socioeconomic opportunities influence childbearing among Latina adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 65 pregnant foreign- and US-born Latina women (31 adolescents; 34 adults) in two(More)
BACKGROUND Prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV infection is a strategy recommended by the World Health Organization for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We assessed pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women with a recent pregnancy in Zimbabwe. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine trends in knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) and determine whether disparities in knowledge have persisted over time. STUDY DESIGN This study is based on 6 years of the California Women's Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey. We examine predictors of EC knowledge among 11,998 women age 18-44. RESULTS Between(More)
BACKGROUND Little research has focused on men and women's reproductive intentions before pregnancy and their perceived personal and social motivations to prevent an unintended pregnancy. METHODS To assess the reproductive intentions of low-income men and women in California, we asked individuals seeking reproductive health services about their plans for(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Understanding whether hormonal contraception increases women's risk of HIV acquisition is a public health priority. This review summarizes recent epidemiologic and biologic data, and considers the implications of new evidence on research and programmatic efforts. RECENT FINDINGS Two secondary analyses of HIV prevention trials(More)