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Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, these two reprogramming methods reset genomic methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA that influences gene expression, leading(More)
Gene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very(More)
To study the spatio/temporal recruitment of lck during immunological synapse formation, we utilize high-speed time-lapse microscopy to visualize green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions of lck and CD3zeta following agonist or altered peptide ligand (APL) stimulation. The dynamics of lck and CD3zeta recruitment are comparable; however, lck becomes excluded to(More)
T cell development requires sequential localization of thymocyte subsets to distinct thymic microenvironments. To address mechanisms governing this segregation, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize migration of purified thymocyte subsets in defined microenvironments within thymic slices. Double-negative (CD4(-)8(-)) and double-positive (CD4(+)8(+))(More)
Immature double-positive (CD4(+)CD8(+)) thymocytes respond to negatively selecting peptide-MHC ligands by forming an immune synapse that sustains contact with the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Using fluorescently labeled peptides, we showed that as few as two agonist ligands could promote APC contact and subsequent apoptosis in reactive thymocytes.(More)
NKG2D is an activating receptor on CD8(+) T cells and NK cells that has been implicated in immunity against tumors and microbial pathogens. Here we show that RAE-1 is present in prediabetic pancreas islets of NOD mice and that autoreactive CD8(+) T cells infiltrating the pancreas express NKG2D. Treatment with a nondepleting anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody(More)
Engagement of the T cell with Ag on an APC results in a series of immediate signaling events emanating from the stimulation of the TCR. These events include the induced phosphorylation of a number of cellular proteins with a subsequent increase in intracellular calcium and the restructuring of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton within the T cell. This(More)
Ongoing thymopoiesis requires continual seeding from progenitors that reside within the bone marrow (BM), but the identity of the most proximate prethymocytes has remained controversial. Here we take a comprehensive approach to prospectively identify the major source of thymocyte progenitors that reside within the BM and blood, and find that all thymocyte(More)
CD8+ T cells require a signal through a costimulatory receptor in addition to TCR engagement to become activated. The role of CD28 in costimulating T cell activation is well established. NKG2D, a receptor found on NK cells, CD8+ alphabeta-TCR+ T cells, and gammadelta-TCR+ T cells, has also been implicated in T cell costimulation. In this study we have(More)
Recognition of foreign antigens by T lymphocytes is a very important component of vertebrate immunity-vital to the clearance of pathogenic organisms and particular viruses and necessary, indirectly, for the production of high affinity antibodies. T cell recognition is mediated by the systematic scanning of cell surfaces by T cells, which collectively(More)