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The recombinant canarypox vector, ALVAC-HIV, together with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 envelope glycoprotein, has protected 31.2% of Thai individuals from HIV acquisition in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial. This outcome was unexpected, given the limited ability of the vaccine components to induce CD8(+) T-cell responses or broadly neutralizing(More)
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs primarily via the mucosal route, suggesting that HIV-1 vaccines may need to elicit mucosal immune responses. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity and relative efficacy of systemic immunization with two human ALVAC-HIV-1 recombinant vaccines expressing Gag, Pol, and gp120 (vCP250) or Gag,(More)
The immunogenicity of a poylvalent HIV-1 vaccine comprised of Env antigens from primary R5 isolates was evaluated in rhesus macaques. DNA vaccines encoding four Env antigens from multiple HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 Gag antigen from a single subtype elicited a persistent level of binding antibodies to gp120 from multiple HIV-1 isolates that were markedly(More)
Immunization of macaques with multivalent DNA encoding gp120 genes from HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C and E and a gag gene followed by boosting with homologous gp120 proteins elicited strong anti-gp120 antibodies capable of neutralizing homologous and to a lesser degree heterologous HIV-1 isolates. Both Env- and Gag-specific cell mediated immune (CMI) responses(More)
Topical DNA vaccination (DermaVir) facilitates antigen presentation to naive T cells. DermaVir immunization in mice, using HIV-1 Env and Gag, elicited cellular immune responses. Boosting with HIV-1 gp120 Env and p41 Gag augmented Th1 cytokine levels. Intramuscular DNA administration was less efficient in priming antigen-specific cytokine production and(More)
As sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs via the mucosa, an ideal HIV-1 vaccine should induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. We therefore sought to evaluate the induction of mucosal responses using a DNA env prime-gp120 protein boost approach in which sequential nasal and parenteral protein administration was performed(More)
A toxicity and immunogenicity study, evaluating the safety of a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost HIV-1 vaccine (DP6-001), was examined in rabbits. Animals were primed with a cocktail of six different DNA plasmids expressing five HIV-1 env genes and one gag gene followed by boosting with five gp120 proteins homologous to the DNA vaccines. The vaccine was(More)
Selection of potent yet low reactogenic adjuvants for protein immunization is important for HIV-1 vaccine development. Immunogenicity of electroporated DNA (HIV env) and recombinant gp120, administered with either QS-21 or the orally administered immunomodulator, Talabostat, was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Electroporation of low dose DNA elicited Th1(More)
Intramuscular needle injection of HIV-1 DNA vaccines typically elicits weak immune responses in immunized individuals. To improve such responses, the immunogenicity of a vaccine consisting of electroporated DNA followed by intramuscular protein boost was evaluated in rabbits and macaques. In macaques, electroporation of low dose DNA encoding HIV-1 env(More)
Nonhuman primates represent a robust model to evaluate preclinical efficacy of HIV-1 vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Plasma and tissue viral RNA as well as tissue proviral DNA load are key parameters in assessing efficacy of vaccines and therapeutics against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. To(More)