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Social media features a wide range of nonstandard spellings, many of which appear inspired by phonological variation. However, the nature of the connection between variation across the spoken and written modalities remains poorly understood. Are phono-logical variables transferred to writing on the level of graphemes, or is the larger system of contextual(More)
California's San Francisco Bay Area has long been one of the most ethnically diverse areas of the United States, and ethnicity is an integral aspect of any research on language use in the region. This article gives a brief social history of San Francisco with respect to settlement patterns since the 1850s' gold rush, paying particular attention to Chinese(More)
The current study looks at intraspeaker variation in the usage of final stop devoicing in elderly speakers of African American Vernacular English. The speakers were interviewed in one-on-one situations and a group-style situation. The results indicated that participants used final stop devoicing significantly more when they were in a group interview than(More)
To appear in Yaeger-Dror and Cieri (eds) special double issue. Abstract When considering variables that are rarely coded for in sociolinguistic studies, we discovered that general demographic studies [e.g., the census, Pew Research studies] have only recently realized that the question sets provided for demographic information rarely permit coding of(More)
1 1. Introduction Negatives provide cognitively critical information and are also interactively signi cant. The present study compares the prosodic realization of negatives in three languages, and in two social settings for each language. The study will provide evidence for three loci of prosodic variation in negatives as they are used in amicable social(More)
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