Learn More
West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as(More)
INTRODUCTION Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease in the United States, causing an estimated one in 15 U.S. residents to become ill each year as well as 56,000-71,000 hospitalizations and 570-800 deaths, predominantly among young children and the elderly. Whereas noroviruses often spread through person-to-person(More)
An outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occurred in Kenya during November 2006 through March 2007. We characterized the magnitude of the outbreak through disease surveillance and serosurveys, and investigated contributing factors to enhance strategies for forecasting to prevent or minimize the impact of future outbreaks. Of 700 suspected cases, 392 met(More)
BACKGROUND Postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure among US children. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts population-based surveillance of pediatric HUS to measure the incidence of disease and to validate surveillance trends in associated Shiga toxin-producing(More)
From 1998 to 2008, 1229 foodborne outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus were reported in the United States; 39% were reported with a confirmed etiology. Vomiting was commonly reported in B. cereus (median, 75% of cases) and S. aureus outbreaks (median, 87%), but rarely in C. perfringens outbreaks (median,(More)
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are increasingly detected, but sources are not well established. We summarize outbreaks to 2010 in the USA. Single-aetiology outbreaks were defined as ⩾2 epidemiologically linked culture-confirmed non-O157 STEC infections; multiple-aetiology outbreaks also had laboratory evidence of ⩾2(More)
OBJECTIVE The study assesses the impact on client behavior and attitudes toward receiving an information prescription as part of a veterinary office visit. METHODS A random sample of veterinary clinics from a Western US metropolitan area was asked to distribute an information prescription in addition to their customary veterinary services. All clients,(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the extent and scope of the outbreak of skin eruptions, to identify the causes of the acute skin diseases, to identify risk factors for the conditions, and to reduce the dermatologic morbidity among workers repairing buildings damaged by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Military(More)
Clostridium difficile infection is increasingly recognized as a cause of diarrhea in outpatients and persons with no apparent health care facility contacts. In contrast to C. difficile infection acquired in health care settings, few risk factors for development of community-associated C. difficile infection are known. Foodborne transmission of C. difficile(More)
Shiga toxin--producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a leading cause of bacterial enteric infections in the United States. Prompt, accurate diagnosis of STEC infection is important because appropriate treatment early in the course of infection might decrease the risk for serious complications such as renal damage and improve overall patient outcome. In(More)