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Methylone is a member of the designer drug class known as synthetic cathinones which have become increasingly popular drugs of abuse in recent years. Commonly referred to as "bath salts", these amphetamine-like compounds are sold as "legal" alternatives to illicit drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy).(More)
Adolescence is a period of enhanced sensitivity to social influences and vulnerability to drug abuse. Social reward in adolescent rats has been demonstrated with the conditioned place preference (CPP) model, but it is not clear whether limited contact with another rat without play is sufficient to produce reward. We investigated this issue using an(More)
Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to(More)
Cues associated with cocaine can elicit craving and relapse. Attempts have been made to employ extinction therapy, which is aimed at attenuating the incentive motivational effects of cocaine cues, as a treatment for cocaine addiction; however, this approach has been largely unsuccessful perhaps due to the inability to extinguish all cues associated with(More)
Pharmacological blockade of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior, yet the brain regions involved in these effects are not yet known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if local blockade of mGluR5 receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and/or the nucleus(More)
Recent findings implicate group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR(2/3)) in the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and have identified these receptors as potential treatment targets for drug addiction. Here, we investigated the effects of mGluR(2/3) stimulation on cue- and drug-primed reinstatement in rats with different histories of(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive psychostimulant with severe detrimental effects to the health of users. Currently, METH addiction is treated with a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies, but these traditional approaches suffer from high relapse rates. Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological treatment(More)
Recent studies have implicated glutamate neurotransmission as an important substrate for the extinction of conditioned behaviors, including responding for drug reinforcement. Positive allosteric modulation of the type-5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) in particular has emerged as a treatment strategy for the enhancement of extinction of(More)
Interferon causes profound biological changes when given to patients with cancer and many of these could not be predicted from in vitro or animal model systems. We documented significant changes in hormonal levels for a group of 18 patients who were participants in a Phase I gamma-interferon trial. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and growth hormone(More)
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