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Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) are the youngest subset of peripheral T cells, and they differ functionally and phenotypically from the rest of the naïve T-cell pool. RTEs are present in the peripheral T-cell pool throughout life but are the most common subset of T cells in neonates and adults recovering from lymphoablation. Using a murine model to study the… (More)
Immune control of persistent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires a sustained pathogen-specific CD4 T cell response; however, the molecular pathways governing the generation and maintenance of Mtb protective CD4 T cells are poorly understood. Using MHCII tetramers, we show that Mtb-specific CD4 T cells are subject to ongoing antigenic… (More)
Research on human immune responses frequently involves the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) immediately, or at significantly delayed timepoints, after collection. This requires PBMC isolation from whole blood and cryopreservation for some applications. It is important to standardize protocols for blood collection, PBMC isolation,… (More)
Peripheral CD4 T cells in Vβ5 transgenic (Tg) C57BL/6J mice undergo tolerance to an endogenous superantigen encoded by mouse mammary tumor virus 8 (Mtv-8) by either deletion or T-cell receptor (TCR) revision. Revision is a process by which surface expression of the Vβ5(+) TCR is down-regulated in response to Mtv-8 and recombination activating genes are… (More)
Antibody affinity maturation involves selective survival of high affinity B cells and is thought to require the germinal center (GC) microenvironment. In this issue of Immunity, Di Niro et al. (2015) challenge this view, showing that low affinity B cells initiate Salmonella responses and affinity mature outside of GCs.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Approximately 60% of adults are CMV seropositive, indicating previous exposure. Following resolution of the primary infection, CMV remains in a latent state. Reactivation is controlled by memory T cells in healthy individuals; transplant recipients have… (More)
Mature B cell pools retain a substantial proportion of polyreactive and self-reactive clonotypes, suggesting that activation checkpoints exist to reduce the initiation of autoreactive B cell responses. Here, we have described a relationship among the B cell receptor (BCR), TLR9, and cytokine signals that regulate B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens.… (More)