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Microbial activities shape the biogeochemistry of the planet and macroorganism health. Determining the metabolic processes performed by microbes is important both for understanding and for manipulating ecosystems (for example, disruption of key processes that lead to disease, conservation of environmental services, and so on). Describing microbial function(More)
Oceanic bacteria perform many environmental functions, including biogeochemical cycling of many elements, metabolizing of greenhouse gases, functioning in oceanic food webs (microbial loop), and producing valuable natural products and viruses. We demonstrate that the widespread capability of marine bacteria to participate in horizontal gene transfer (HGT)(More)
A seasonal study of the distribution of lysogenic bacteria in Tampa Bay, Florida, was conducted over a 13-month period. Biweekly water samples were collected and either were left unaltered or had the viral population reduced by filtration (pore size, 0.2 micro m) and resuspension in filtered (pore size, 0.2 micro m) water. Virus-reduced and unaltered(More)
To understand the similarities and differences between a free living viral population and its co-occurring temperate population, metagenomes of each type were prepared from the same seawater sample from Tampa Bay, FL. Libraries were prepared from extracted DNA of the ambient viruses and induced prophages from the co-occurring, viral-reduced microbial(More)
Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived(More)
Phage integrase genes often play a role in the establishment of lysogeny in temperate phage by catalyzing the integration of the phage into one of the host's replicons. To investigate temperate phage gene expression, an induced viral metagenome from Tampa Bay was sequenced by 454/Pyrosequencing. The sequencing yielded 294,068 reads with 6.6% identifiable.(More)
Viral infection of bacteria can be lytic, causing destruction of the host cell, or lysogenic, in which the viral genome is instead stably maintained as a prophage within its host. Here we show that lysogeny occurs in natural populations of an autotrophic picoplankton (Synechococcus) and that there is a seasonal pattern to this interaction. Because lysogeny(More)
Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine α-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the(More)
The demonstrated relationship between carcinogenicity of a chemical compound in mammals and its tendency to cause prophage induction in bacteria provides a method for biologically based carcinogen screening. Because of the need for this type of screening and the abundance of lysogens in the marine environment, 14 isolates were evaluated for the degree of(More)
A series of experiments were conducted with samples collected in both Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico to assess the impact of nutrient addition on cyanophage induction in natural populations of Synechococcus sp. The samples were virus reduced to decrease the background level of cyanophage and then either left untreated or amended with nitrate, ammonium,(More)