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OBJECTIVE To investigate major depressive disorder (MDD), which complicates the course of type 2 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. This risk may be due to a greater susceptibility for myocardial infarction (MI) in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes compared with nondepressed patients with type 2(More)
BACKGROUND Depression is a known risk factor for mortality after an acute myocardial infarction. Patients with treatment-responsive depression may have a better prognosis than those with treatment-resistant depression. AIMS We sought to determine whether mortality following acute myocardial infarction was associated with treatment-resistant depression. (More)
BACKGROUND Depression is a risk factor for incident myocardial infarction (MI), but little is known about the independent or additive risk from anxiety disorders. METHODS In a 7-year retrospective cohort design, we identified a cohort free of cardiovascular disease in fiscal years 1999 and 2000 that contained 96,612 patients between 25 and 80 years of age(More)
BACKGROUND The long-term risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with use of antidepressants is uncertain, especially for nontricyclic antidepressants. The present study uses a national Veterans Affairs cohort to test whether antidepressants increase or decrease risk of MI and all-cause mortality. METHODS US Department of Veterans Affairs patient(More)
OBJECTIVE Depression has been associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF). Because anxiety is highly comorbid with depression, we sought to establish if anxiety, depression, or their co-occurrence is associated with incident HF. METHODS A retrospective cohort (N = 236,079) including Veteran's Administration patients (age, 50-80 years) free of(More)
OBJECTIVE Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the(More)
Antidepressants are associated with bone loss and fractures in older adults. We treated depressed older adults with an antidepressant and examined its effects on bone turnover by comparing blood samples before and after treatment. Bone resorption increased after antidepressant treatment, which may increase fracture risk. Antidepressants have been associated(More)
OBJECTIVE Adequate treatment of depression improves the prognosis of depressed individuals. This study identified sociodemographic, medical, psychiatric, and health care utilization factors associated with receipt of adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy by Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with recurrent depression. METHODS National VHA(More)
OBJECTIVES We determined the prevalence of and indications for psychotropic medication among preschool children in Medicaid. METHODS We obtained 2000 to 2003 Medicaid Analytic Extract data from 36 states. We followed children in 2 cohorts, born in 1999 and 2000, up to age 4 years. We used logistic regression to model odds of receiving medications for (1)(More)