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Neurotoxicity induced by overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is due, in part, to a sustained rise in intracellular Ca2+; however, little is known about the ensuing intracellular events that ultimately result in cell death. Here we show that overstimulation of NMDA receptors by relatively low concentrations of glutamate induces apoptosis(More)
For survival, embryonic motoneurons in vertebrates depend on as yet undefined neurotrophic factors present in the limb bud. Members of the neurotrophin family are currently the best candidates for such neurotrophic factors, but inactivation of their receptor genes leads to only partial loss of motoneurons, which suggests that other factors are involved.(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent survival factors for sympathetic, sensory and central nervous system neurons. GDNF mediates its actions through a multicomponent receptor system composed of a ligand-binding glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein (designated GDNFR-alpha)(More)
Substance P (SP) is present in avian sympathetic ganglia and accelerates the decay rate of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked macroscopic currents in sympathetic neurons. We demonstrate here that SP modulates ACh-elicited single channels in a manner consistent with an enhancement of ACh receptor (AChR) desensitization. Furthermore, since AChR channel function was(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent effects on survival and function of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in a variety of models. Although other growth factors expressed in the vicinity of developing DA neurons have been reported to support survival of DA neurons in vitro, to date none of these factors duplicate the potent(More)
beta A4 peptide (beta AP) accumulates in amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease and may contribute to neuronal degeneration. Conflicting observations have been reported regarding the direct in vitro and in vivo neurotoxicity of beta AP. We have assessed in vitro beta AP toxicity in high density primary rat hippocampal cultures and found marked lot-to-lot(More)
Whole-cell voltage-clamp recording and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were used to assess the importance of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) conformation for eliciting homeostatically disruptive membrane conductances in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. A beta that assumed a random coil conformation when freshly dissolved in water did not alter cell(More)
The RB cells, an identified cluster of serotonergic neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica, are excited by ACh. We have found that serotonin (5-HT) enhances the ACh responses recorded from the RB cells. The locus and specificity of the serotonergic interaction with the ACh response were analyzed using the conventional two-electrode(More)