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Distinct forms of memory can be highlighted using different training protocols. In Drosophila olfactory aversive learning, one conditioning session triggers memory formation independently of protein synthesis, while five spaced conditioning sessions lead to the formation of long-term memory (LTM), a long-lasting memory dependent on de novo protein(More)
Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies(More)
Olfactory learning and memory processes in Drosophila have been well investigated with aversive conditioning, but appetitive conditioning has rarely been documented. Here, we report for the first time individual olfactory conditioning of proboscis activity in restrained Drosophila melanogaster. The protocol was adapted from those developed for proboscis(More)
This chapter presents a series of behavioral studies designed to document how Leptopilina spp. learn fruit odours in order to find and explore host-infested fruits. Experimental analyses of conditioned responses explored individual learning, physiological changes and genetic variability as adaptive mechanisms of the host searching behavior. Both oriented(More)
In fall, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) may exhibit population resurgence in winter oilseed rape in France. This resurgence may arise from pyrethroid treatments against Coleoptera (Psylliodes chrysocephala L.) that either kill parasitoids present during treatment or prevent recolonization by off-crop parasitoids. We studied the impact of(More)
Memory performance depends not only on effective learning and storage of information, but also on its efficient retrieval. In Drosophila, aversive olfactory conditioning generates qualitatively different forms of memory depending on the number and spacing of conditioning trials. However, it is not known how these differences are reflected at the retrieval(More)
The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their(More)
Neurotoxic insecticides are widely used for crop protection. One consequence is that changes in behaviour can be expected in surviving beneficial insects because of an impairment of host perception and motor abilities. Under laboratory conditions, we studied the impact of deltamethrin, a pyrethroid, on the oviposition behaviour of two hymenopterous(More)
To develop efficient and safe biological control, we need to reliably identify natural enemy species, determine their host range, and understand the mechanisms that drive host range evolution. We investigated these points in Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitic wasp of cereal stem borers. Phylogenetic analyses of 74 individual wasps, based on six(More)
Among the proposed mechanisms of local adaptation to different ecological environments, transcriptional changes may play an important role. In this study, we investigated whether such variability occurred within the chemosensory organs of a herbivorous insect, for which chemosensation guides most of its host preferences. A European and an African population(More)