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Recent studies on endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammatory response in the lung are reviewed. The acute airway inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 signalling as mice deficient for TLR4 or CD14 are unresponsive to endotoxin. Acute bronchoconstriction, tumour necrosis factor(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lon mutants are supersusceptible to ciprofloxacin, and exhibit a defect in cell division and in virulence-related properties, such as swarming, twitching and biofilm formation, despite the fact that the Lon protease is not a traditional regulator. Here we set out to investigate the influence of a lon mutation in a series of(More)
TNF is a pleiotropic cytokine required for normal development and function of the immune system; however, TNF overexpression also induces inflammation and is associated with autoimmune diseases. TNF exists as both a soluble and a transmembrane protein. Genetic studies in mice have suggested that inflammation in disease models involves soluble TNF (solTNF)(More)
Case fatality rates for severe malaria remain high even in the best clinical settings because antimalarial drugs act against the parasite without alleviating life-threatening inflammation. We assessed the potential for host-directed therapy of severe malaria of a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, the innate defense regulator (IDR) peptides, based on(More)
In adaptive immunity, Th17 lymphocytes produce the IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines that stimulate mucosal antimicrobial defenses and tissue repair. In this study, we observed that the TLR5 agonist flagellin induced swift and transient transcription of genes encoding IL-17 and IL-22 in lymphoid, gut, and lung tissues. This innate response also temporarily enhanced(More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling has been shown to contribute to resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection, as TLR2-deficient mice have a heightened susceptibility to infection with this organism. Because CD14 may associate with TLR2, we investigated the role of CD14 in Listeria responses. In both CD14-deficient and TLR2-deficient macrophages,(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in the host response to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (LM). TNF exists in soluble and membrane-bound forms and exhibits both unique and overlapping activities. We examined the role of membrane TNF in the absence of secreted TNF for host resistance in knockin mice in which the endogenous(More)
Bacterial products (such as endotoxins and flagellin) trigger innate immune responses through TLRs. Flagellin-induced signalling involves TLR5 and MyD88 and, according to some reports, TLR4. Whereas epithelial and dendritic cells are stimulated by flagellin in vitro, the cell contribution to the in vivo response is still unclear. Here, we studied the(More)
Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct, functional activation of APCs. Here, we sought to establish whether TLR stimulation in non-hematopoietic cells contributes to flagellin's mucosal adjuvant(More)