TNF is a pleiotropic cytokine required for normal development and function of the immune system; however, TNF overexpression also induces inflammation and is associated with autoimmune diseases. TNF exists as both a soluble and a transmembrane protein. Genetic studies in mice have suggested that inflammation in disease models involves soluble TNF (solTNF)… (More)
In adaptive immunity, Th17 lymphocytes produce the IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines that stimulate mucosal antimicrobial defenses and tissue repair. In this study, we observed that the TLR5 agonist flagellin induced swift and transient transcription of genes encoding IL-17 and IL-22 in lymphoid, gut, and lung tissues. This innate response also temporarily enhanced… (More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lon mutants are supersusceptible to ciprofloxacin, and exhibit a defect in cell division and in virulence-related properties, such as swarming, twitching and biofilm formation, despite the fact that the Lon protease is not a traditional regulator. Here we set out to investigate the influence of a lon mutation in a series of… (More)
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling has been shown to contribute to resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection, as TLR2-deficient mice have a heightened susceptibility to infection with this organism. Because CD14 may associate with TLR2, we investigated the role of CD14 in Listeria responses. In both CD14-deficient and TLR2-deficient macrophages,… (More)
TLR-mediated innate immune cell activation Van Maele et al.