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This paper surveys the set of techniques developed in Computer Graphics for animating human walking. First, we focus on the evolution from purely kinematic \knowledge-based" methods to approaches that incorporate dynamics constraints, or use dynamics simulations to generate motion. Then, we review the recent advances in motion editing, that enable the(More)
In this paper, we propose a new approach to simulate the small intestine in a context of laparoscopic surgery. The ultimate aim of this work is to simulate the training of a basic surgical gesture in real-time: moving aside the intestine to reach hidden areas of the abdomen. The main problem posed by this kind of simulation is animating the intestine. The(More)
In this paper, we present a system dedicated to the simulation of various physically-based and mainly deformable objects. Its main purpose is surgical simulation where many models are necessary to simulate the organs and the user's tools. In our system, we found convenient to decompose each simulated model in three units: The mechanical, the visual and the(More)
In this paper, we propose an approach based on visualization to support the teacher to observe the students' activities. After comparing the teaching in classical rooms and in e-learning systems, we present some visualization techniques used in various domains. The paper then focuses on visualization techniques in order to help the teacher to better(More)
Seven antigenic variants obtained from a single field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus, serotype A12, differ only at residues 148 and 153 in the immunodominant loop of viral protein VP1. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 141-160 are highly immunogenic. UV circular dichroism shows that (i) in aqueous solution the peptides are nearly(More)
A foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant which is stable at pH 6.4 has been isolated from a virus of serotype A. In contrast to the parent (P) virus, which gave a mixture of large and small plaques in BHK21 cells and in a bovine kidney cell line, the acid-resistant (AR) virus gave small plaques which did not increase markedly in size after 24 hr. The(More)
Pixed (Project Integrating eXperience in Distance Learning) is a research project attempting to use learners' interaction logs gathered as learning episodes to provide contextual help for learners trying to navigate their way through an ontology-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). First, we propose a model to describe a learning session, a way to log(More)
The work reported here takes place in the educational domain and deals especially with observation of pedagogical activity. User behavior is observed through the raw traces (log files) of their activity from multiple sources. The main point of this paper deals with a very important stage, generally not described: the preparation of an observed experiment by(More)
In this paper, we propose a modeling of the intestines by implicit surfaces for abdominal surgery simulation. The difficulty of such a simulation comes from the animation of the intestines. As a matter of fact, the intestines are a very long tube that is not isotropically elastic, and that bends over itself at various spots, creating multiple self-contacts.(More)