Laura Williams

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Autophagy controls IL-1β secretion by regulating inflammasome activation and by targeting pro-IL-1β for degradation. In this article, we show that inhibition of autophagy, either with the PI3K inhibitors 3-methyladenine, wortmannin, and LY294002 or with small interfering RNA against autophagy proteins augmented the secretion of IL-23 by human and mouse(More)
Lung function detection in mice is currently most accurately measured by invasive techniques, which are costly, labor intensive, and terminal. This limits their use for large-scale or longitudinal studies. Noninvasive assays are often used instead, but their accuracy for measuring lung function parameters such as resistance and elastance has been questioned(More)
Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) is a critical phenotype of human asthma and animal models of asthma. Other studies have measured AHR in nine mouse strains, but only six strains have been used to identify genetic loci underlying AHR. Our goals were to increase the genetic diversity of available strains by surveying 27 additional strains, to apply haplotype(More)
Here we report details of the European research initiative “Soil Crust International” (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called “colored soil lichen community” (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these(More)
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) occur in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide including the Polar Regions. They are important ecosystem engineers, and their composition and areal coverage should be understood before assessing key current functional questions such as their role in biogeochemical nutrient cycles and possible climate change scenarios. Our aim(More)
Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils,(More)
Cyanobacteria associated with biological soil crusts (BSCs) have important attributes, such as nitrogen fixation and soil stabilisation. However, research on these organisms has been minimal, and their diversity and distribution throughout temperate Europe is currently unknown. The SCIN (Soil Crust International) project is a multidisciplinary research(More)
Unraveling the complex relationship between lichen fungal and algal partners has been crucial in understanding lichen dispersal capacity, evolutionary processes, and responses in the face of environmental change. However, lichen symbiosis remains enigmatic, including the ability of a single fungal partner to associate with various algal partners. Psora(More)
Fluorous phase soluble polymer supports derived from fluoroacrylate polymers are described. N-Acryloxysuccinimide-containing fluoroacrylate polymers were readily prepared from commercially available monomers. The activated acrylates so prepared were then converted into chelating and non-chelating ligands by amidation of the N-acryloxysuccinimide active(More)