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Mutations in the LRRK2 gene have been identified in families with autosomal dominant parkinsonism. We amplified and sequenced the coding region of LRRK2 from genomic DNA by PCR, and identified a heterozygous mutation (Gly2019 ser) present in four of 61 (6.6%) unrelated families with Parkinson's disease and autosomal dominant inheritance. The families(More)
BACKGROUND Levodopa-related motor complications can be an important source of disability for patients with advanced Parkinson disease. Current evidence suggests that these motor complications are related to the relatively short half-life of levodopa and its potential to induce pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors. Motor complications can be(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the distribution of prior scoliosis among patients with primary adult-onset cervical dystonia (CD) and matched control subjects. METHODS Case and control subjects were selected among consecutive outpatients attending four Italian centers. Control outpatients were matched for age (+/-5 years), sex, and referral center. Information on(More)
Motor complications are a major source of disability for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Surgical therapies provide benefit to some, but these treatments are expensive and associated with adverse effects. Current research indicates that motor complications are associated with abnormal, intermittent, pulsatile stimulation of denervated dopamine(More)
Fluctuations in motor disability and dyskinesias are the major problem in the long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors and ourselves have shown that by giving patients a continuous infusion of levodopa it is possible to control motor fluctuations. Levodopa can be administered continuously only by intravenous, intragastric or(More)
Cortical inhibitory mechanisms were investigated with the technique of paired transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 patients with dystonia of the right arm: six patients had focal, task-specific dystonia (writer's cramp) and three had segmental and one had generalized dystonia. Paired stimuli were delivered in a conditioning-test design during slight(More)
BACKGROUND Botulinum toxin A (BTX) is the currently preferred symptomatic treatment for primary hemifacial spasm (HFS), but its long-term efficacy and safety are not known. OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of BTX in the treatment of primary HFS. DESIGN Retrospective review of medical records of the 1st and 10th years of(More)
A possible reason why levodopa induces a sustained, stable motor benefit during the first months to years of therapy may be its long duration of action. This long-duration effect may be due either to a presynaptic storage mechanism or to postsynaptic pharmacodynamic changes. We previously reported that the dopamine agonist ropinirole induced a long-duration(More)
A single dose of levodopa (L-DOPA) reduces motor disability in Parkinson's disease (PD) for a few hours, a short-duration effect. However, there are suggestions that L-DOPA may also produce a long-duration benefit of some days. In the present study, we examined the long-duration action of L-DOPA by observing the time taken to achieve maximum stable benefit(More)
We studied the effect of botulinum toxin A injection on the abnormal presynaptic phase of reciprocal inhibition between forearm antagonist muscles in patients with essential tremor. Ten patients with essential tremor were investigated before and 1 month after botulinum injection. Reciprocal inhibition was studied by conditioning the H reflex in forearm(More)