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Specific interactions between retroviral integrase (IN) and long terminal repeats are required for insertion of viral DNA into the host genome. To characterize quantitatively the determinants of substrate specificity, we used a method based on a stepwise increase in ligand complexity. This allowed an estimation of the relative contributions of each(More)
Three DNA polymerases (A, B and C) have been purified from the soluble cytoplasm of ungerminated embryos. Mainly on the basis of chromatographic, template-specificity and salt-inhibition evidence, we have characterized the three enzymes. Other physico-chemical and enzymic properties are described. From purified mitochondria we have purified a DNA polymerase(More)
Retroviral integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of double-stranded viral DNA into the host cell genome. The reaction can be divided in two steps: 3'-end processing and DNA strand transfer. Here we studied the effect of short oligonucleotides (ODNs) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN. ODNs were either specific, with sequences representing(More)
The precursor homodimeric p66/p66 form of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) possesses the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities involved in the synthesis of the double-stranded provirus DNA. Reverse transcription is initiated from tRNALys in the case of HIV-1. The present study confirmed that interactions between HIV-1 RT(More)
Six affinity reagents containing chemically reactive groups, either on the phosphate residue at the 5'-end or on the 5'- or 3'-end internucleoside phosphate linkages of the oligothymidylate primers, were used to covalently modify the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). After covalent binding of these modified primer analogs(More)
The comparison of Km and Vmax values for various primers in the reaction of polymerization catalyzed by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase was carried out. The primers were: (a) complementary to the template, (b) partially complementary with mismatched nucleotides at different positions from the 3' end or (c)(More)
We describe in this article some properties concerning the cDNA elongation activity of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). The kinetic parameters of the polymerization reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 RT, using short templates, were studied. Values of Km and Vmax were measured as a function of the oligoadenylate template(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme in the life cycle of the retrovirus, responsible for catalysing the insertion of the viral genome into the host cell chromosome. For this reason it provides an attractive target for antiviral drug design. We synthesized a series of novel thiazole (Tz)-containing oligopeptides(More)
Ten different pyranone-related substituents (chromones or coumarins) were covalently linked to the 5' end of various oligonucleotides (ODN). The interaction of these compounds with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) was analyzed. A different behavior was found to depend on the structure of the oligonucleotide derivatives.(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the etiologic agent of AIDS. Replication of this virus requires the activity of a retrovirus encoded RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, or reverse transcriptase (RT). HIV-1 RT is required for the synthesis of the double-stranded proviral DNA from the single-stranded retroviral RNA genome. HIV-1 RT has two(More)