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Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever(More)
This study demonstrated that West Nile virus (WNV) excreted in the urine of patients with acute infection can be isolated in cell cultures. In addition, the protocols for WNV isolation from urine samples were standardized, and factors that may affect the efficiency of WNV isolation were identified.
A human outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection caused by WNV lineage 2 is ongoing in northern Italy. Analysis of six WNV genome sequences obtained from clinical specimens demonstrated similarities with strains circulating in central Europe and Greece and the presence of unique amino acid changes that identify a new viral strain. In addition, WNV(More)
In recent years, West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has been spreading and causing disease outbreaks in humans and animals in Europe. In order to characterize viral diversity, we performed full-length genome sequencing of WNV lineage 2 from human samples collected during outbreaks in Italy and Greece in 2013 and 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these(More)
In July-September 2012, one month earlier than in previous years, 13 confirmed human cases of West Nile virus infection were diagnosed in northern Italy, including five with neuroinvasive disease, three with West Nile fever, and five West Nile virus (WNV)-positive blood donors. In nine cases, the presence of the WNV lineage 1a Livenza strain, characterised(More)
We report here an update on human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Veneto region, northeastern Italy. In addition to two cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease notified through a surveillance programme started in September 2008, further four cases were retrospectively identified (in May 2009) by investigating patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis(More)
In 2010, for the third consecutive year, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection, including three confirmed cases of neuroinvasive disease and three confirmed cases of West Nile fever, were identified in north-eastern Italy. While in 2008 and 2009 all human cases of WNV disease were recorded in the south of the Veneto region, cases of WNV disease in(More)
BACKGROUND An accurate tool for human papillomavirus (HPV) typing is important both for management of patients with HPV infection and for surveillance studies. OBJECTIVES Design and evaluation of an HPV typing method based on 454 next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. STUDY DESIGN Development of an HPV typing method based on 454 NGS of HPV L1(More)
In 2009, six new human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) were identified in Veneto region, following the six cases already reported in 2008. A human West Nile virus (WNV) isolate was obtained for the first time from an asymptomatic blood donor. Whole genome sequence of the human WNV isolate showed close phylogenetic relatedness to the(More)
Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic(More)